🔝 Comparatif – Variété Black Creek 10 K: le 31 décembre

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ÉTATS-UNIS

SECURITES ET COMITE

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

_____________________________________________________________

FORMULAIRE 10-K

_____________________________________________________________

ý

RAPPORT ANNUEL LE CHANGEMENT DES VALEURS MOBILIÈRES 1943 NO.

LA FIN DE L'ANNEE SUIVANTE Décembre 2018

OU

RAPPORT TRANSITOIRE SECTION 1934 VALEURS MOBILIÈRES MODIFICATION SECTION 13 OU 15 (d) t

Numéro de dossier de la Commission: 000-52596

_____________________________________________________________

Fonds de propriétés diversifiées Black Creek Inc.

(Nom exact du titulaire tel que spécifié dans la charte)

_____________________________________________________________

Maryland

30-0309068

(État ou autre juridiction). T.

ou organisation)

(I. R.S. Employeur

Numéro d'identification.)

518 Seventh Street, 17ème étage, Denver, CO

80202

(Adresse des principaux bureaux exécutifs)

(Zip)

(303) 228-2200

(Numéro d'enregistrement, y compris l'indicatif régional)

Titres inscrits en vertu de l’alinéa 12 b) de la Loi: néant

Titres inscrits en vertu de l'alinéa 12g) de la Loi:

Actions ordinaires de catégorie T, valeur nominale de 0,01 $

Actions de catégorie S à la bourse ordinaire, valeur nominale de 0,01 $

Actions ordinaires de catégorie D, valeur nominale de 0,01 $

Actions ordinaires de catégorie I, valeur nominale de 0,01 $

Actions ordinaires de catégorie E, valeur nominale de 0,01 $

(Titre de chaque classe)

_____________________________________________________________

Vérifiez si l'inscrit est un émetteur expérimenté notoire conformément à la règle 405 de la loi sur les valeurs mobilières. Oui ☐ non ý

Cochez la case si le titulaire n'a pas à soumettre de rapport conformément à l'article 13 ou à l'article 15 d) de la loi. Oui ☐ non ý

Vérifiez si le déclarant (1) a soumis tous les rapports soumis conformément aux articles 13 ou 15 de la Securities Exchange Act de 1934 pour les 12 derniers mois (ou pour une période plus courte pour laquelle le déclarant était obligé) ces rapports), et (2) ont été soumis à ces obligations de déclaration au cours des 90 derniers jours. oui ý Non ☐

Vérifiez si le déclarant a soumis tous les fichiers de données interactifs par voie électronique au cours des 12 derniers mois, qui doivent être soumis conformément à la règle 402 du règlement S-T (§32.405) (ou à une période plus courte pendant laquelle le déclarant a dû soumettre de tels fichiers). oui ý Non ☐

Cochez la case si la publication de l'article 405 du code SK (n ° 229.405 du présent chapitre) n'est pas incluse et n'est pas mieux connue, à la connaissance du déclarant, dans la procuration finale ou les déclarations de renseignements mentionnées dans la référence. de la forme 10-K. ou toute modification du formulaire 10-K. ý

Vérifiez que le déclarant est un grand déposant accéléré, un déposant accéléré, un déposant non accéléré, une petite société déclarante ou une société en croissance émergente. Voir les concepts de «déposant accéléré», de «déposant accéléré», de «petite société déclarante» et de «société en croissance émergente» dans la Loi sur les échanges 12b-2. Par règlement.

Grand classeur accéléré

Filer accéléré

Petite entreprise déclarante

Pas un déposant accéléré

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Société de croissance émergente

Si vous êtes une société en croissance émergente, cochez la case si l'inscrit a décidé de ne pas utiliser la période de transition prolongée pour se conformer aux normes de comptabilité financière nouvelles ou révisées en vertu de la section 13 (a) de la Loi sur les échanges. ¨

Cochez la case correspondant à la société écran d’enregistrement (sous Exchange Act 12b-2). oui ¨ pas ý

Il n'y a pas de marché pour les actions ordinaires dans les actions de la personne inscrite. Le déclarant publie la valeur nette d'inventaire ("VNI") sur la base des procédures et méthodes définies par le conseil d'administration, et 30 juin 2018, le dernier jour ouvrable du deuxième trimestre financier terminé de l'inscrit 7,49 $ par action par action. Comme ça 31 décembre 2018, NAV était 7,44 $ par action par action.

Il était là 127978657 actions en circulation de non-filiales 30 juin 2018, le dernier jour ouvrable du dernier trimestre complété de la personne inscrite.

Comme ça 27 février 2019. 3011894 Actions d’actions ordinaires de catégorie T, t 12913347 Actions d’Actions de Classe S, t 2905353 Actions d’actions ordinaires de catégorie D, t 38192423 Actions de catégorie I et. t 75726063 Les actions des actions de catégorie E de l'inscrit, chacune à 0,01 $ par action, étaient en circulation.

DOCUMENTS DE RÉFÉRENCE

Rapport annuel sur formulaire 10-K, formulaire III. Une partie de celle-ci contient certaines informations faisant référence à la procuration finale du déclarant. 2019 L'assemblée annuelle des actionnaires doit être soumise à la Securities and Exchange Commission au plus tard le 30 avril (ci-après dénommée "SEC"). 2019.


TABLE DES MATIÈRES


AVIS DE RAPPORTS ACTUELS

Le rapport annuel relatif au formulaire 10-K figure à l’article 27A de la loi de 1933 sur les valeurs mobilières. Il est considéré comme des "déclarations prospectives" au sens de son article, ou "Securities Act" et 21E. la loi sur les bourses de 1934 ou la loi sur les bourses. Ces déclarations prospectives comprennent notamment les dépenses en immobilisations, les distributions et les acquisitions futures (y compris son montant et sa nature), ainsi que d’autres développements et tendances. immobilier, stratégies commerciales, expansion et croissance. Ces déclarations sont basées sur des hypothèses et des analyses basées sur notre expérience et les tendances historiques, les circonstances actuelles, les développements futurs attendus et d'autres facteurs que nous estimons appropriés. Nous avons l’intention d’appliquer ces déclarations prospectives à l’article 27A de la Loi sur les valeurs mobilières. Et l'article 21E de la loi sur les bourses. Ces déclarations dépendent d'un certain nombre d'hypothèses, de risques et d'incertitudes pouvant différer sensiblement de nos résultats, performances ou résultats réels, des résultats futurs, de la performance ou des résultats exprimés ou atteints par les déclarations prospectives. En général, les déclarations prospectives peuvent être identifiées en utilisant les mots "peut", "sera", "doit", "attendre", "attendre", "estimer", "croire", "avoir l'intention", "projeter". continue »ou le négatif de ces mots ou d’autres mots ou expressions similaires. Les lecteurs avertissent qu'ils ne doivent pas se fier de manière déraisonnable à ces déclarations prospectives.

Les risques et les incertitudes qui peuvent différer considérablement de ceux présentés ou supposés par des déclarations futures, tels que les résultats, performances ou résultats réels, incluent:

l'impact des tendances macroéconomiques, telles que le taux de chômage et la disponibilité du crédit, pouvant notamment avoir un impact négatif sur: t

nos bases commerciales, y compris l'utilisation globale du marché, l'utilisation des locataires et les loyers;

la situation financière de nos locataires, dont certaines sont des sociétés financières, juridiques et autres sociétés professionnelles, nos créanciers et nos institutions financières et institutions fournissant nos investissements à court terme, ce qui peut être le risque accru de ces personnes; et

la valeur de notre propriété immobilière, ce qui peut limiter la capacité de disposer de l'actif à des prix attractifs, ou de la garantie fournie par notre propriété ou sans garantie;

risques généraux du marché immobilier (y compris, sans limitation, la possibilité de conclure ou de renouveler des contrats de location, de dépendre de la situation financière des locataires et de la concurrence entre promoteurs, propriétaires et exploitants immobiliers);

nous sommes en mesure de générer et de déployer efficacement les revenus de nos offres publiques en cours;

les risques associés à la demande de liquidité dans notre programme de rachat d’actions et à la capacité de répondre à cette demande;

les risques associés à la disponibilité et aux conditions du financement par emprunt et par capitaux propres et par le recours à la dette pour financer des acquisitions et des développements, y compris les coûts de financement et / ou les taux d’intérêt affectant l’accès au financement;

les opportunités commerciales que nous présentons et suivons, les modifications de la législation et de la réglementation (y compris les modifications apportées à la législation en matière de fiscalité des fonds de placement) ("FPI");

les conflits d'intérêts découlant de nos relations avec Black Creek Diversified Property Advisors Group LLC («sponsor»), Black Creek Diversified Property Advisors LLC («conseiller») et leurs sociétés affiliées;

les changements de conventions comptables, directives et directives pour les FPI;

exigences environnementales, réglementaires et / ou de sécurité; et

la disponibilité et le coût d'une assurance tous risques, y compris pour les actes terroristes.

Pour plus de détails sur ces facteurs et d’autres, consultez le rapport annuel 1A du formulaire 10-K. Nous ne nous engageons pas à mettre à jour ou à modifier nos déclarations prospectives lors d'événements futurs, de nouvelles informations ou pour d'autres raisons.


PARTIE I

SUJET 1.

La société

Le fonds de propriété diversifié Black Creek Inc. est une durée de vie permanente basée sur l'actif net (la «VAN»), créée le 11 avril 2005 en tant que société du Maryland. Nous nous concentrons principalement sur l’investissement et l’exploitation d’un portefeuille diversifié d’immeubles. Comme ça 31 décembre 2018, notre portefeuille immobilier 47 propriétés comprenant quatre caractéristiques qui font partie du programme DST (comme défini ci-dessous) totalisant environ 7,7 millions pied carré 18 aux États-Unis 490 locataires. Dans la présente spécification, les termes "DPF", "Société", "Nous", "Nous" ou "Nous" désignent le Fonds de propriété diversifié Black Creek Inc. et ses filiales consolidées, sauf indication contraire ou le contexte contraire. nécessaire.

À compter de l'année d'imposition se terminant le 31 décembre 2006, le système fédéral de l'impôt sur le revenu des États-Unis a été traité comme une FPI. Nous avons été sélectionnés et continuons de fonctionner conformément aux exigences de qualification relatives aux FPI. Nous utilisons la structure organisationnelle du Fonds de placement immobilier Umbrella Partnership ("UPREIT") pour détenir tout ou partie de nos actifs dans Black Creek Diversified Property (société en commandite d’exploitation) (Delaware, ci-après dénommée "partenariat opérationnel"). le seul partenaire général et un partenaire limité.

Nous attendons du consultant, la partie affiliée, qu’il gère nos activités quotidiennes et mette en œuvre notre stratégie d’investissement conformément aux conditions de la convention de conseil, y compris le partenariat opérationnel et le consultant (la «convention de conseil»). Le conseiller s'acquittera de ses tâches et de ses responsabilités telles que définies dans la convention de conseil, à l'instar de notre principal client.

En tant que vie éternelle basée sur la valeur liquidative, nous souhaitons poursuivre en permanence des offres primaires ordinaires et continues. Nous avons également l’intention de poursuivre un programme de réinvestissement marketing continu afin de réinvestir nos actions dans nos actionnaires. Nous souhaitons parfois soumettre de nouvelles déclarations d’enregistrement sur formulaire S-11 à la Securities and Exchange Commission (ci-après dénommée "SEC") afin d’enregistrer des actions supplémentaires des actions afin de constituer des actions communes continues conformément à l’article 415. en vertu de la loi de 1933 sur les valeurs mobilières, telle que modifiée (la «loi sur les valeurs mobilières»). dessous 2018, nous l'avons élevé 141,1 millions de dollars produit brut de la vente des actions ordinaires de nos principales offres publiques et de nos offres 19,0 millions de dollars sur la base de notre plan de réinvestissement des distributions visant à vendre des actions ordinaires. Pour plus d'informations sur nos offres publiques, voir «États financiers et informations complémentaires», paragraphe 8, à la note 8 des états financiers consolidés.

En outre, nous avons un programme visant à mobiliser des capitaux par le biais d'offres privées en vendant des intérêts bénéficiaires dans des établissements de crédit spécifiques enregistrés dans le Delaware et qui détiennent des biens immobiliers (le "programme DST"). Ces offres d'investissement privé sont dispensées de l'obligation d'enregistrement en vertu de l'article 4 a) 2) de la loi sur les valeurs mobilières. Dans le cadre du programme DST, tout placement privé offre un ou plusieurs intérêts immobiliers d'un ou plusieurs des biens immobiliers légitimes du Delaware ("DST Properties") par un ou plusieurs de ses partenariats opérationnels. Les propriétés de DST proviennent de propriétés actuellement détenues indirectement par le partenariat opérationnel ou de propriétés nouvellement acquises. Nous nous attendons à ce que ces intérêts remplacent les investisseurs qui souhaitent effectuer des swaps similaires conformément à l’article 1031 des Internal Revenue Rules de 1986 ("le Code"). Comme pour nos précédentes offres de placement privé, nous prévoyons que le programme DST élargira et diversifiera ses stratégies d’augmentation de capital, car nous pensons qu’il s’agit d’un produit de placement attrayant et unique pour les investisseurs à la recherche d’immeubles de substitution. opérations de change similaires en vertu de la Section 1031 du Code. dessous 2018, nous l'avons élevé 43,2 millions de dollars de la vente d’intérêts liés au programme DST. Pour plus de détails sur le programme DST, voir la note 5 des états financiers consolidés, la note 5, les états financiers et les informations complémentaires.

Objectifs d'investissement

Nos principaux objectifs d'investissement sont:

fournir un revenu courant à nos actionnaires sous la forme d'un flux de trésorerie permanent;

préservation et protection des investissements en actions de nos actionnaires;

réaliser l'appréciation du cours des actions de gestion active de placements et de gestion d'actifs; et

diversification du portefeuille sous la forme de plusieurs catégories d’investissements, principalement dans l’immobilier direct.

Rien ne garantit que nous atteindrons nos objectifs d'investissement. Nos statuts contiennent un certain nombre de restrictions lorsque nous investissons dans notre argent. Dans la plupart des cas, ces limitations ne peuvent être modifiées que si votre charte est modifiée avec l'approbation de nos actionnaires.


Stratégie d'investissement

Nous continuons de concentrer nos activités d’investissement sur le développement de notre portefeuille immobilier diversifié et de grande qualité aux États-Unis. Bien que nous ciblions généralement les investissements dans quatre catégories principales d’immobilier (bureaux, commerces de détail, industriels et multifonctions), notre charte et notre politique n’excluent pas les investissements dans d’autres biens immobiliers commerciaux, des dettes liées à des biens ou des actions liées à des biens immobiliers.

Nous pensons que le marché immobilier est cyclique et que la demande pour les types de propriétés augmente au plus haut niveau. Bien que nous n'investissions pas à court terme, nous sommes des gestionnaires de portefeuille actifs et essayons de tirer parti de l'acquisition stratégique ou de l'aliénation d'actifs à différents moments du cycle. L'une des raisons pour lesquelles nous nous concentrons sur plusieurs types de propriétés et de marchés est d'accroître la capacité d'exploiter les cycles du marché. Nous pensons que plus nous aurons d’investissements en capital, plus nous serons sélectifs dans le choix d’investissements stratégiques et exceptionnels, susceptibles de générer un rendement total attrayant pour nos actionnaires. Si nous en voyons plus sur l'ensemble du marché immobilier, nous pourrons faire des investisseurs cohérents et significatifs au cours de différents cycles. Si nous pensons qu'un secteur est trop cher, nous attendons et nous concentrons sur un autre secteur que nous pensons être ignoré ou une base plus solide pour la valeur relative. Nous pensons que la valeur est généralement basée sur la capacité de l'investissement à générer des flux de trésorerie et non sur ce que le prochain acheteur paiera à tout moment. En général, nous nous concentrons sur des marchés ciblés et sélectionnés, caractérisés par la forte demande des locataires à la recherche d’espaces de qualité.

Notre stratégie d'investissement dans un avenir proche, grâce à des fondamentaux attractifs, devrait se concentrer sur de nouveaux investissements dans les secteurs industriel et multiniveau. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur la vente de bureaux et d'équipements résidentiels. Veuillez vous reporter à la section "Notes afférentes aux états financiers consolidés 3" de la section 8 "États financiers et informations supplémentaires" pour obtenir des détails sur nos activités disponibles. 2018 et 2017. Le placement de ces immeubles a permis d’accroître la répartition actuelle de l’immobilier industriel et des liquidités afin de créer de nouvelles opportunités d’investissement. Dans le même temps, vous ne pouvez pas être sûr que nous réussirons dans cette stratégie d'investissement, y compris le groupe d'actifs donné. Nous pouvons investir moins dans d'autres types de biens immobiliers, y compris, sans toutefois s'y limiter, les services d'accueil, les cabinets de médecins, les maisons d'étudiants et les terrains non réparés. Nous n'avons actuellement pas l'intention d'investir dans ces autres types de biens immobiliers.

En général, nous utilisons une stratégie à long terme pour les investissements stratégiques dans le portefeuille immobilier. La majeure partie de notre portefeuille actuel se compose principalement de fonctionnalités «essentielles» ou «principales», qui présentent d'importants antécédents opérationnels et qui sont essentiellement louées, de sorte qu'une grande partie du retour sur investissement total devrait provenir du revenu actuel. De plus, nous avons investi dans une proportion relativement moins importante d’opportunités «à valeur ajoutée» apparaissant dans des circonstances où nous avons constaté qu’une situation immobilière pouvait être sous-estimée, ou si un réaménagement, une nouvelle location et / ou une meilleure gestion de l’actif pourraient augmenter les flux de trésorerie et où Le retour sur investissement devrait généralement provenir d'une composante relativement plus importante de l'augmentation de capital.

Objectifs de financement

Nous utilisons un levier financier pour soutenir nos activités d'investissement. Notre effet de levier comptable correspond à l'encours du total des emprunts à la juste valeur des placements immobiliers et de titres de créance. Afin de déterminer la juste valeur de notre propriété, la structure de crédit-bail artificiel, y compris l'option d'achat, inclut la juste valeur des propriétés faisant partie du programme DST. Sur la base de cette méthodologie, nous avons eu un effet de levier 47,7% que 31 décembre 2018, contre 49,1% 31 décembre 2017. Il existe d'autres méthodes pour calculer le ratio de levier global, qui peuvent différer de cette méthode, telles que la méthode utilisée pour déterminer la conformité avec les contrats d'emprunt d'entreprise. Notre objectif de levier actuel est de 40 à 60%. Bien que nous cherchions généralement à maintenir un ratio de levier cible dans un avenir proche, nous pouvons modifier notre ratio de levier ciblé de temps à autre. En outre, nous pouvons parfois nous écarter de notre ratio d’endettement cible et rien ne garantit que nous maintiendrons la fourchette cible décrite ci-dessus ou que nous atteindrons tout autre objectif d’effet de levier que nous pourrons cibler à l’avenir. Notre conseil d’administration peut, de temps à autre, modifier sa politique d’emprunt en fonction de la conjoncture économique, du coût relatif de la dette et des fonds propres, de la valeur réelle de l’immobilier, des conditions générales du marché des titres de créance et des actions, des possibilités de croissance et autres facteurs. Pour plus de détails, voir 1A. Point: "Facteurs de risque – Risques de financement par emprunt".

concurrence

Les opportunités d'investissement dans l'immobilier, y compris d'autres FPI, fonds de pension, sociétés d'assurance, fonds d'investissement et sociétés, partenariats et développeurs, sont confrontées à la concurrence de différentes organisations. Bon nombre de ces unités peuvent avoir davantage accès à des capitaux pour acquérir des biens immobiliers qu’elles ne le font. En plus des concurrents tiers, nous pouvons également concurrencer d'autres programmes parrainés ou de conseil, notamment ceux couvrant les stratégies d'investissement. Outre la concurrence pour des opportunités d’investissement attrayantes, le contexte actuel en matière de leasing et d’exploitation est également bon.


Concurrentiel. Pour plus de détails, voir 1A. Point: "Facteurs de risque – Risques de conflit d’intérêts" et "Risques d’un investissement immobilier".

Locataires importants

Nous dépendons de la capacité des locataires actuels à payer le loyer contracté au fur et à mesure que les loyers deviennent dus. Comme ça 31 décembre 2018, aucun locataire ne représentait plus de 10,0% du loyer annuel total et deux locataires représentant plus de 10,0% du total des pieds carrés loués. Nos dix plus grands locataires étaient représentés 33,9% et 38,6% Loyer annuel total et pied carré loué total. Nous ne connaissons pas les locataires actuels dont le non-paiement du loyer contractuel aurait un impact négatif important sur notre performance. Pour plus de détails sur la diversification des locataires, voir le point 2: "Propriétés".

Conflit d'intérêts

Différents conflits d’intérêts découlant de nos relations avec un conseiller et d’autres sociétés affiliées et parties liées, tels que: le consultant, certaines sociétés affiliées et des parties liées, et des conflits liés aux accords de rémunération conclus avec nous; conflits liés à la répartition du temps des consultants et des employés clés; les conflits liés à l'acquisition d'actifs auprès de filiales de conseil; et des conflits sur l'attribution des opportunités d'investissement et de location. En raison de notre concurrence potentielle avec ces organisations, certaines opportunités d'investissement et de crédit-bail qu'elles auraient autrement ne seraient pas disponibles. Pour plus de détails, voir 1A. Point: "Facteurs de risque – Risques de conflit d’intérêts". Les administrateurs indépendants sont tenus d’agir en notre nom dans tous les cas où un conflit d’intérêts peut survenir et il incombe au client d’agir au nom de nos actionnaires.

Conformité aux lois environnementales fédérales, étatiques et locales

Les qualités acquises et les qualités sous-jacentes à notre investissement sont soumises aux lois, réglementations et réglementations environnementales fédérales, régionales et nationales. Conformément à ces lois, règlements et réglementations, le propriétaire actuel ou ancien du bien (y compris, dans certaines circonstances, un créancier ou un propriétaire qui détient ou contrôle un bien) peut assumer la responsabilité de certains coûts dangereux ou de disposition ou d'élimination. les émissions de substances toxiques ou de produits pétroliers sur, sous, sous ou au-dessus de la propriété. Ces lois prévoient généralement une responsabilité de nettoyage, que le propriétaire ou la partie à qui le contrôle ait été ou ait été responsable du rejet ou de la présence de substances dangereuses ou toxiques. Les coûts de test, de restauration ou de retrait de ces matériaux peuvent être importants et dépasser la valeur de la propriété. Le propriétaire du site ou le vérificateur peut être soumis aux exigences légales de tiers en fonction des dommages et des coûts résultant de la pollution de l'environnement par le site. Certaines lois environnementales assument également la responsabilité de la manipulation ou de la manipulation de matériaux contenant de l'amiante. Ces lois permettent à des tiers de récupérer auprès de leurs propriétaires des dommages corporels liés à des matériaux contenant de l’amiante. Nos coûts d’exploitation et la valeur de ces actifs peuvent être affectés négativement par le coût de la conformité aux lois, réglementations et réglementations environnementales en vigueur, ainsi que par le coût de la conformité à la législation future, ainsi que par nos revenus et notre rentabilité. L’existence d’une responsabilité environnementale à l’égard de nos propriétés pourrait avoir une incidence défavorable sur la distribution à nos actionnaires. Nous nous efforcerons de veiller à ce que nos qualités, à tous égards importants, soient conformes aux lois, réglementations et réglementations fédérales, régionales et locales relatives aux substances dangereuses ou toxiques ou aux produits pétroliers.

Les employés

Nous n'avons pas d'employés. Conformément aux termes de la convention de conseil, le consultant assume la responsabilité principale de la gestion de nos affaires et le rémunère pour certains services.

Informations disponibles

Adresse Internet www.blackcreekdiversified.com. Grâce à notre lien sur notre site Web, nous établissons gratuitement nos rapports annuels sur le formulaire 10-K, les rapports trimestriels sur formulaire 10-Q, les rapports actuels sur formulaire 8-K et le prospectus, ainsi que les modifications connexes. dès que cela est raisonnablement possible après leur envoi à la SEC.


1A. FACTEURS DE RISQUE

Investissements en actions ordinaires

Il n’existe pas de marché public pour les actions ordinaires et nous ne prévoyons pas de marché public pour nos actions; par conséquent, la capacité de nos actionnaires à se départir de leurs actions sera probablement limitée au rachat. Si un actionnaire vend ses actions, l'actionnaire peut recevoir moins que le prix qu'il a payé.

Il n’existe pas de marché public pour les actions d’actions publiques, et il n’existe actuellement aucune obligation ou plan de demander à être inscrit sur un marché de valeurs mobilières publiques. Par conséquent, le rachat des actions de nos actions ordinaires est probablement le seul moyen pour les actionnaires de se départir de leurs actions. Les actions seront rachetées le dernier jour civil du mois au même prix que le prix de transaction (qui correspond généralement à la dernière valeur liquidative mensuelle publiée par action) et non au prix auquel l'actionnaire a initialement acheté ses actions. Les actions des actionnaires peuvent être rachetées si le solde minimal de 2 000 $ d'actions n'est pas maintenu, même si l'actionnaire ne respecte pas le solde minimal, ce qui a uniquement entraîné une diminution de la valeur liquidative. En fonction des exceptions limitées, les actions impayées pendant au moins un an seront remboursées à 95% du prix de transaction, ce qui profitera indirectement aux actionnaires restants. En conséquence, et en raison de la fluctuation de notre valeur liquidative, les actionnaires peuvent, sur la base de notre programme de rachat d’actions, recevoir une réduction du prix payé pour leurs actions lors du rachat.

Notre capacité à racheter des actions peut être limitée et le conseil d'administration peut modifier, suspendre ou mettre fin à notre programme de rachat d'actions à tout moment.

Nous pouvons racheter moins d’actions à tout moment dans le cadre de notre programme de rachat d’actions ou à tout moment par rapport à ce que nous avons demandé au cours d’un mois donné. Nous pouvons acheter moins d'actions en raison du manque de fonds disponibles en raison du manque de conditions du marché, de la nécessité de maintenir des liquidités ou parce que nous avons constaté qu'investir dans l'immobilier ou d'autres investissements non liquides utilise un meilleur capital. comme rachat d'actions. Ezen túlmenően az E, T, T, S, D osztályú és I. osztályú részvények összesített visszaváltásainak összege (a részvények visszaváltásának ára alapján) minden naptári hónapban 2% -ra korlátozódik. az összes osztály összesített NAV-ját az előző negyedév utolsó naptári napján és minden naptári negyedévben az összes részvényosztály összesített NAV-jának 5% -ára korlátozzák az előző naptári negyedév utolsó naptári napján; feltéve azonban, hogy minden hónapban és negyedévben a közös részvények minden osztályát az összesített határértéken belül kapják meg, hogy az ilyen osztály részvényesei: (a) részvényeket vásároljanak (a részvények visszaváltási árának alapján) egyenlő az előző negyedév utolsó naptári napjáig az ilyen részvényosztály összesített NAV értékének legalább 2% -ára; vagy, ha inkább korlátozó, (b) a részvények visszaváltása (a részvények visszaváltási árának alapján) az adott negyedév során legalább az ilyen részvényosztály összesített NAV-jának legalább 5% -ával az utolsó naptári naptól az előző negyedévben (együttesen a továbbiakban: „2% és 5% -os határértékek”), amelyek egy negyedév második és harmadik hónapjában az ilyen részvényosztály NAV-jának kevesebb mint 2% -a lehetnek, és akár nulla is lehetnek . Ezen túlmenően mind a fent leírt összesített, mind az osztályspecifikus kiosztások esetében (i) feltéve, hogy a részvény-visszaváltási program működött, és nem felfüggesztésre került egy adott negyedév első hónapjára, és hogy minden megfelelően benyújtott visszaváltási kérelem teljesült, minden fel nem használt az adott hónap kapacitása átviheti a második hónapot, és (ii) feltéve, hogy a részvény-visszaváltási program működött, és nem felfüggesztésre került egy adott negyedév első két hónapjára, és hogy minden megfelelően benyújtott visszaváltási kérelem teljesült, a fel nem használt kapacitások teljesülnek. ezek a két hónap a harmadik hónapra kerülnek át. Az ilyen átviteli kapacitás semmilyen esetben nem teszi lehetővé az összesített értékű részvények visszaváltását (a részvényenkénti visszaváltási áron, a visszaváltás időpontjában), amely a részvények összes osztályának összesített NAV 5% -át meghaladja. az előző naptári negyedév utolsó naptári napja (feltéve, hogy ezekre a célokra a visszaváltások nettó alapon mérhetők az alábbi bekezdésben leírtak szerint).

Jelenleg mérjük a fent említett visszaváltási allokációkat és korlátozásokat egy adott hónap vagy negyedév során a nettó visszaváltások alapján. A „nettó visszaváltás” kifejezés az alkalmazandó időszak alatt a részvények visszaváltásainak (tőkekiáramlások) túllépését jelenti a részvényeink értékesítéséből származó bevételek felett (tőkebeáramlás). A jövőbeni időszakok tekintetében az igazgatótanács dönthet arról, hogy a juttatások és korlátozások a „bruttó visszaváltásokra” vonatkoznak-e, vagyis a nettó visszaváltások helyett a tőkebeáramlással szembeni nettósítás nélkül, ami korlátozhatja a részvények visszaváltását. adott hónap vagy negyedévben, annak ellenére, hogy az adott hónap vagy negyedévben nettó

Eszközeink túlnyomó többsége olyan tulajdonságokból áll, amelyeket általában nem lehet rövid időn belül könnyen felszámolni anélkül, hogy hatással lennénk teljes értékük megvalósítására. Ezért előfordulhat, hogy nem mindig rendelkezünk elegendő készpénzzel a visszaváltási kérelmek teljesítéséhez. Igazgatóságunk módosíthatja, felfüggesztheti vagy megszüntetheti részvény-visszaváltási programunkat. Ennek eredményeképpen a részvénytulajdonos azon képessége, hogy részvényeinket visszaváltják, korlátozott lehet, és részvényeinket csak korlátozott likviditásúnak kell tekinteni, és időnként lehetnek likvidek is. See Item 5, “Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities—Share Redemption Program and Other Redemptions” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


Our capacity to redeem shares may be further limited if we experience a concentration of investors.

The current limitations of our share redemption program are based, in part, on the number of outstanding shares. Thus, the ability of a single investor, or of a group of investors acting similarly, to redeem all of their shares may be limited if they own a large percentage of our shares. Similarly, if a single investor, or a group of investors acting in concert or independently, owns a large percentage of our shares, a significant redemption request by such investor or investors could significantly further limit our ability to satisfy redemption requests of other investors of such classes. Such concentrations could arise in a variety of circumstances, especially while we have relatively few outstanding Class T, Class S, Class D and Class I shares. For example, we could sell a large number of our shares to one or more institutional investors, either in a public offering or in a private placement. In addition, we may issue a significant number of our shares in connection with an acquisition of another company or a portfolio of properties to a single investor or a group of investors that may request redemption at similar times following the acquisition. As of December 31, 2018, based on the NAV per share of $7.44 on that date, we had outstanding approximately $20.7 million in Class T shares, $78.2 million in Class S shares, $20.7 million in Class D shares, $278.1 million in Class I shares and $575.6 million in Class E shares.

Purchases and redemptions of our common shares will not be made based on the current NAV per share of our common stock.

The purchase and redemption price for shares of our common stock will generally be based on our most recently disclosed monthly NAV (subject to material changes) and will not be based on any public trading market. We generally expect our transaction price to be equal to our NAV as of a date approximately one month prior to the dates when share purchases and redemptions take place. For example, if the stockholders wish to subscribe for shares of our common stock in October, the subscription request must be received in good order at least five business days before November 1. Generally, the offering price would equal the NAV per share of the applicable class as of the last calendar day of September, plus applicable upfront selling commissions and dealer manager fees. If accepted, the stockholder subscription would be effective on the first calendar day of November. Conversely, if the stockholders wish to submit their shares for redemption in October, the redemption request and required documentation must be received in good order by 4:00 p.m. (Eastern time) on the second to last business day of October. If accepted, the stockholders’ shares would be redeemed as of the last calendar day of October and, generally, the redemption price would equal the NAV per share of the applicable class as of the last calendar day of September, subject to reduction for early redemption. In each of these cases, the NAV that is ultimately determined as of the last day of October may be higher or lower than the NAV as of the last day of September used for determining the transaction price. Therefore, the price at which the stockholders purchase shares may be higher than the current NAV per share at the time of sale and the price at which they redeem shares may be lower than the current NAV per share at the time of redemption.

Economic events that may cause our stockholders to request that we redeem their shares may materially adversely affect our cash flow and our results of operations and financial condition.

Economic events affecting the U.S. economy, such as the general negative performance of the real estate sector, could cause our stockholders to seek to sell their shares to us pursuant to our share redemption program at a time when such events are adversely affecting the performance of our assets. Even if we decide to satisfy all resulting redemption requests, our cash flow could be materially adversely affected. In addition, if we determine to sell assets to satisfy redemption requests, we may not be able to realize the return on such assets that we may have been able to achieve had we sold at a more favorable time, and our results of operations and financial condition, including, without limitation, breadth of our portfolio by property type and location, could be materially adversely affected.

A portion of the proceeds raised in our public offerings is expected to be used to satisfy redemption requests, and such portion of the proceeds may be substantial.

We currently expect to use a portion of the proceeds from our public offerings to satisfy redemption requests, in particular redemption requests from our Class E stockholders who comprise the majority of our stockholders, have generally held their shares for a number of years and have demonstrated significant demand for liquidity in recent years. We have redeemed approximately $170.9 million of shares of our common stock during the year ended December 31, 2018. Using the proceeds from our public offerings for redemptions will reduce the net proceeds available to retire debt or acquire additional properties, which may result in reduced liquidity and profitability or restrict our ability to grow our NAV.

We have experienced periods in the past in which redemption demand exceeded redemption capacity, and we could experience such situations again in the future.

We commenced our initial public offering in January 2006 and commenced operations later that year. At that time, we only offered Class E shares of common stock (referred to at that time simply as our shares of “common stock”), and our share redemption program for Class E stockholders (which was more restrictive than our current share redemption program) was subject to limitations that included a maximum number of redemptions during any calendar year of 5% of the weighted-average number of shares outstanding during the prior calendar year. Beginning in the first quarter of 2009 through the third quarter of 2016, redemption requests from Class E stockholders exceeded the redemption limits set forth in the Class E share redemption


program and associated offering materials, and we conducted a number of self-tender offers to supplement this liquidity. As a result, we redeemed only a portion of the shares from investors who sought redemption during that period, either through the redemption program or self-tender offers, and the stockholders were required to resubmit redemption requests periodically in order to renew their requests to either have their shares redeemed pursuant to the share redemption program or purchased pursuant to a tender offer.

Although all properly submitted redemption requests and/or tenders in our self-tender offers have been satisfied beginning with the fourth quarter of 2016, in the future we could experience situations like that described above in which redemption demand exceeds capacity. Our current share redemption program has different limitations than our share redemption program did during that time, but it remains true that our ability to redeem the stockholder shares may be limited, and our board of directors may modify, suspend or terminate our share redemption program at any time. Furthermore, we may redeem fewer shares than have been requested in any particular month to be redeemed under our share redemption program, or none at all, in our discretion at any time. If a redemption request under our share redemption program is unsatisfied, it must be resubmitted after the start of the next month or quarter, or upon the recommencement of the share redemption program, as applicable.

Historical returns may be presented over limited timeframes and are inherently limited in their applicability to the future.

In our prospectus, in our annual report, and in other investor communications, we disclose certain historical NAV and total return information. This information may be presented on a class-by-class basis or on a weighted-average basis across all our classes. The information may go back one month, one quarter, or longer periods. While we believe this historical information is useful, investors should understand that any historical return presentation is inherently limited in its applicability to the future, for a variety of reasons. We may have performed better in certain past time periods than others, and we cannot predict the future performance of our company specifically or the broader economy and real estate markets more generally. Furthermore, from time to time we make changes to our portfolio, our investment focus, or structural aspects of our company that may make past returns less comparable. Over time, we have made changes to the fees and reimbursements we pay to the Advisor (in connection with managing our operations) and the dealer manager for our public offerings, Black Creek Capital Markets, LLC (the “Dealer Manager”), and participating broker-dealers (in connection with our public offerings). Our share classes have different upfront fees and different class-specific fees that make their returns different from those of other classes and from average returns that may be shown. In some cases, we have changed the names of our share classes and the fees that affect their returns. Over time, we have also made changes to the frequency with which, and the methodologies with which, we estimate the value of our shares.

In particular, it was not until July 2012 that we converted to a perpetual-life “NAV REIT” that offers multiple classes of shares, moved to a fee structure similar to what we have now, and began providing regular NAV computations and disclosures similar to those we provide now. For this reason, our historical return disclosures typically do not go further back than September 30, 2012, which is the first quarter-end date as an NAV REIT and which we refer to as our “NAV inception.” Nevertheless, investors should be aware that we commenced operations in the first quarter of 2006, and from 2006 to 2009 raised capital through the sale of Class E shares of common stock (referred to at that time simply as our shares of “common stock”) at a fixed price of $10.00 per share. Prior to NAV inception in 2012, we had a materially different structure both in terms of the commissions charged in connection with sales of shares and the fees and reimbursements we paid to the Advisor and the Dealer Manager. As a result of both this different structure and the effects of the financial crisis, the performance returns for individual Class E stockholders that acquired shares in our offerings from 2006 to 2009 is lower than those for our other stockholders.

Stockholders will not have the opportunity to evaluate future investments we will make with the proceeds raised in our public offerings prior to purchasing shares of our common stock.

We have not identified future investments that we will make with the proceeds of our public offerings. As a result, stockholders will not be able to evaluate the economic merits, transaction terms or other financial or operational data concerning our future investments prior to purchasing shares of our common stock. Stockholders must rely on the Advisor and our board of directors to implement our investment policies, to evaluate our investment opportunities and to structure the terms of our investments. Because the stockholders cannot evaluate all of the investments we will make in advance of purchasing shares of our common stock, this additional risk may hinder the stockholders’ ability to achieve their own personal investment objectives related to portfolio diversification, risk-adjusted investment returns and other objectives.

We may raise significantly less than the maximum offering amount in our public offerings.

In our current public primary offering, we are offering on a continuous basis up to $3.0 billion of shares of our common stock. However, we may raise significantly less than this amount. The less capital we raise, the less capital we will have available to make investments in accordance with our investment strategy and policies, to provide liquidity to our stockholders and for general corporate purposes (which may include repayment of our debt or any other corporate purposes we deem appropriate).

Furthermore, the estimated use of proceeds figures presented in our prospectuses are estimates based on numerous assumptions. The actual percentage of net proceeds available to use will depend on a number of factors, including the amount of capital we raise and the actual offering costs. For example, if we raise less than the maximum offering amount, we would


expect the percentage of net offering proceeds available to us to be less (and may be substantially less) than the estimated use of proceeds figures presented in our offering prospectuses because many offering costs are fixed and do not depend on the amount of capital raised in our public offerings.

Even if we are able to raise substantial funds in our public offerings, investors in our common stock are subject to the risk that our offering, business and operating plans may change.

Although we intend to operate as a perpetual-life REIT with an ongoing offering and share redemption program, this is not a requirement of our charter. Even if we are able to raise substantial funds in our public offerings, if circumstances change such that our board of directors believes it is in the best interest of our stockholders to terminate the offering or to terminate our share redemption program, we may do so without stockholder approval. Our board of directors may also change our investment objectives, borrowing policies or other corporate policies without stockholder approval. In addition, we may change the way our fees and expenses are incurred and allocated to different classes of stockholders if the tax rules applicable to REITs change such that we could do so without adverse tax consequences. Our board of directors may decide that certain significant transactions that require stockholder approval such as dissolution, merger into another entity, consolidation or the sale or other disposition of all or substantially all of our assets, are in the best interests of our stockholders. Holders of all classes of our common stock have equal voting rights with respect to such matters and will vote as a single group rather than on a class-by-class basis. Accordingly, investors in our common stock are subject to the risk that our offering, business and operating plans may change.

Valuations and appraisals of our properties, real estate-related assets and real estate-related liabilities are estimates of value and may not necessarily correspond to realizable value.

The valuation methodologies used to value our properties and certain real estate-related assets involve subjective judgments regarding such factors as comparable sales, rental revenue and operating expense data, known contingencies, the capitalization or discount rate, and projections of future rent and expenses based on appropriate analysis. As a result, valuations and appraisals of our properties, real estate-related assets and real estate-related liabilities are only estimates of current market value. Ultimate realization of the value of an asset or liability depends to a great extent on economic and other conditions beyond our control and the control of the Independent Valuation Firm (as defined below) and other parties involved in the valuation of our assets and liabilities. Further, these valuations may not necessarily represent the price at which an asset or liability would sell, because market prices of assets and liabilities can only be determined by negotiation between a willing buyer and seller. Valuations used for determining our NAV also are generally made without consideration of the expenses that would be incurred by us in connection with disposing of assets and liabilities. Therefore, the valuations of our properties, our investments in real estate-related assets and our liabilities may not correspond to the timely realizable value upon a sale of those assets and liabilities. In addition to being a month old when share purchases and redemptions take place, our NAV does not currently represent enterprise value and may not accurately reflect the actual prices at which our assets could be liquidated on any given day, the value a third party would pay for all or substantially all of our shares, or the price that our shares would trade at on a national stock exchange. There will be no retroactive adjustment in the valuation of such assets or liabilities, the price of our shares of common stock, the price we paid to redeem shares of our common stock or NAV-based fees we paid to the Advisor and the Dealer Manager to the extent such valuations prove to not accurately reflect the true estimate of value and are not a precise measure of realizable value. Because the price the stockholders will pay for shares of our common stock in the offering, and the price at which their shares may be redeemed by us pursuant to our share redemption program, are generally based on our estimated NAV per share, the stockholders may pay more than realizable value or receive less than realizable value for their investment.

In order to disclose a monthly NAV, we are reliant on the parties that we engage for that purpose, in particular the Independent Valuation Firm and the appraisers that we hire to value and appraise our real estate portfolio.

In order to disclose a monthly NAV, our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, has adopted valuation procedures that contain a comprehensive set of methodologies to be used in connection with the calculation of our NAV and caused us to engage independent third parties such as the Independent Valuation Firm, to value our real estate portfolio on a monthly basis, and independent appraisal firms, to provide periodic appraisals with respect to our properties. We have also engaged a firm to act as the NAV Accountant and may engage other independent third parties or the Advisor to value other assets or liabilities. Although our board of directors, with the assistance of the Advisor, oversees all of these parties and the reasonableness of their work product, we will not independently verify our NAV or the components thereof, such as the appraised values of our properties. Our management’s assessment of the market values of our properties may also differ from the appraised values of our properties as determined by the Independent Valuation Firm. If the parties engaged by us to determine our monthly NAV are unable or unwilling to perform their obligations to us, our NAV could be inaccurate or unavailable, and we could decide to suspend our public offerings and our share redemption program.


Our NAV is not subject to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”), will not be independently audited and will involve subjective judgments by the Independent Valuation Firm and other parties involved in valuing our assets and liabilities.

Our valuation procedures and our NAV are not subject to GAAP and will not be subject to independent audit. Our NAV may differ from equity (net assets) reflected on our audited financial statements, even if we are required to adopt a fair value basis of accounting for GAAP financial statement purposes. Additionally, we are dependent on the Advisor to be reasonably aware of material events specific to our properties (such as tenant disputes, damage, litigation and environmental issues) that may cause the value of a property to change materially and to promptly notify the Independent Valuation Firm so that the information may be reflected in our real estate portfolio valuation. In addition, the implementation and coordination of our valuation procedures include certain subjective judgments of the Advisor, such as whether the Independent Valuation Firm should be notified of events specific to our properties that could affect their valuations, as well as of the Independent Valuation Firm and other parties we engage, as to whether adjustments to asset and liability valuations are appropriate. Accordingly, the stockholders must rely entirely on our board of directors to adopt appropriate valuation procedures and on the Independent Valuation Firm and other parties we engage in order to arrive at our NAV, which may not correspond to realizable value upon a sale of our assets.

No rule or regulation requires that we calculate our NAV in a certain way, and our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, may adopt changes to the valuation procedures.

There are no existing rules or regulatory bodies that specifically govern the manner in which we calculate our NAV. As a result, it is important that stockholders pay particular attention to the specific methodologies and assumptions we use to calculate our NAV. Other public REITs may use different methodologies or assumptions to determine their NAV. In addition, each year our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, will review the appropriateness of our valuation procedures and may, at any time, adopt changes to the valuation procedures. For example, we do not currently include any enterprise value or real estate acquisition costs in our assets calculated for purposes of our NAV. If we acquire real property assets as a portfolio, we may pay a premium over the amount that we would pay for the assets individually. Our board of directors may change these or other aspects of our valuation procedures, which changes may have an adverse effect on our NAV and the price at which the stockholders may sell shares to us under our share redemption program. See Item 5, “Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities—Net Asset Value Per Share” and our valuation procedures attached as Exhibit 4.4 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K for more details regarding our valuation methodologies, assumptions and procedures.

Our NAV per share may suddenly change if the valuations of our properties materially change from prior valuations.

It is possible that the annual appraisals of our properties may not be spread evenly throughout the year and may differ from the most recent monthly valuation. As such, when these appraisals are reflected in our Independent Valuation Firm’s valuation of our real estate portfolio, there may be a sudden change in our NAV per share for each class of our common stock. Property valuation changes can occur for a variety of reasons, such as local real estate market conditions, the financial condition of our tenants, or lease expirations. For example, we regularly face lease expirations across our portfolio, and as we move further away from lease commencement toward the end of a lease term, the valuation of the underlying property will be expected to drop depending on the likelihood of a renewal or a new lease on similar terms. Such a valuation drop can be particularly significant when closer to a lease expiration, especially for single tenant buildings or where an individual tenant occupies a large portion of a building. We are at the greatest risk of these valuation changes during periods in which we have a large number of lease expirations as well as when the lease of a significant tenant is closer to expiration. Similarly, if a tenant will have an option in the future to purchase one of our properties from us at a price that is less than the current valuation of the property, then if the value of the property exceeds the option price, the valuation will be expected to decline and begin to approach the purchase price as the date of the option approaches. In addition, actual operating results could change unexpectedly. For example, if operating expenses suddenly increase or revenues decrease, such change may in turn cause a sudden increase or decrease in the NAV per share amounts.

New acquisitions may be valued for purposes of our NAV at less than what we pay for them, which would dilute our NAV, or at more than what we pay for them, which would be accretive to our NAV.

Pursuant to our valuation procedures, the acquisition price of newly acquired properties will serve as our appraised value for the calendar year of acquisition, and thereafter will be part of the rotating appraisal cycle such that they are appraised at least every calendar year. This is true whether the acquisition is funded with cash, equity or a combination thereof. However, the Independent Valuation Firm always has the ability to adjust property valuations for purposes of our NAV from the most recent appraised value. Similarly, if the Independent Valuation Firm believes that the purchase price for a recent acquisition does not reflect the current value of the property, the Independent Valuation Firm has the ability to adjust the valuation for purposes of our NAV immediately after acquisition. Even if the Independent Valuation Firm does not adjust the valuation immediately following the acquisition, when we obtain an appraisal on the property, it may not appraise at a value equal to the purchase price. Accordingly, the value of a new acquisition as established under our NAV procedures could be less than what we pay for


it, which could negatively affect our NAV, or more than what we pay for it, which could positively affect our NAV. Large portfolio acquisitions, in particular, may require a “portfolio premium” to be paid by us in order to be a competitive bidder, and this “portfolio premium” may not be taken into consideration in calculating our NAV. In addition, acquisition expenses we incur in connection with new acquisitions will negatively impact our NAV. We may make acquisitions (with cash or equity) of any size without stockholder approval, and such acquisitions may be dilutive or accretive to our NAV.

The NAV per share that we publish may not necessarily reflect changes in our NAV that are not immediately quantifiable.

From time to time, we may experience events with respect to our investments that may have a material impact on our NAV. For example, and not by way of limitation, changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies, environmental legislation, acts of God, terrorism, social unrest, civil disturbances and major disturbances in financial markets may cause the value of a property to change materially. Similarly, negotiations, disputes and litigation that involve us and other parties may ultimately have a positive or negative impact on our NAV. The NAV per share of each class of our common stock as published for any given month may not reflect such extraordinary events to the extent that their financial impact is not immediately quantifiable. As a result, the NAV per share that we publish may not necessarily reflect changes in our NAV that are not immediately quantifiable, and the NAV per share of each class published after the announcement of a material event may differ significantly from our actual NAV per share for such class until such time as the financial impact is quantified and our NAV is appropriately adjusted in accordance with our valuation procedures. The resulting potential disparity in our NAV may inure to the benefit of redeeming stockholders or non-redeeming stockholders and new purchasers of our common stock, depending on whether our published NAV per share for such class is overstated or understated.

The realizable value of specific properties may change before the value is adjusted by the Independent Valuation Firm and reflected in the calculation of our NAV.

Our valuation procedures generally provide that the Independent Valuation Firm will adjust a real property’s valuation, as necessary, based on known events that have a material impact on the most recent value (adjustments for non-material events may also be made). We are dependent on the Advisor to be reasonably aware of material events specific to our properties (such as tenant disputes, damage, litigation and environmental issues, as well as positive events such as new lease agreements) that may cause the value of a property to change materially and to promptly notify the Independent Valuation Firm so that the information may be reflected in our real estate portfolio valuation. Events may transpire that, for a period of time, are unknown to us or the Independent Valuation Firm that may affect the value of a property, and until such information becomes known and is processed, the value of such asset may differ from the value used to determine our NAV. In addition, although we may have information that suggests a change in value of a property may have occurred, there may be a delay in the resulting change in value being reflected in our NAV until such information is appropriately reviewed, verified and processed. For example, we may receive an unsolicited offer from an unrelated third party, to sell one of our assets at a price that is materially different than the price included in our NAV. Or, we may be aware of a new lease, lease expiry, or a potential contract for capital expenditure. Where possible, adjustments generally are made based on events evidenced by proper final documentation. It is possible that an adjustment to the valuation of a property may occur prior to final documentation if the Independent Valuation Firm determines that events warrant adjustments to certain assumptions that materially affect value. However, to the extent that an event has not yet become final based on proper documentation, its impact on the value of the applicable property may not be reflected (or may be only partially reflected) in the calculation of our NAV.

Our NAV and the NAV of stockholder shares may be diluted in connection with our public offerings and future securities offerings.

In connection with our public offerings, we incur fees and expenses, which will decrease the amount of cash we have available for operations and new investments. In addition, because the prices of shares sold in our public offerings are based on our NAV, the offering may be dilutive if our NAV procedures do not fully capture the value of our shares and/or we do not utilize the proceeds accretively.

In the future we may conduct other offerings of common stock (whether existing or new classes), preferred stock, debt securities or of interests in the Operating Partnership. We may also amend the terms of our public offerings. We may structure or amend such offerings to attract institutional investors or other sources of capital. The costs of our public offering and future offerings may negatively impact our ability to pay distributions and stockholders’ overall return.

Interest rate changes may cause volatility in our monthly NAV.

In accordance with our valuation procedures, we generally use the fair value of our assets and liabilities to determine our monthly NAV.  The fair value of certain of our assets and liabilities, such as fixed-rate borrowings and interest rate hedges, may be very sensitive to interest rate changes. As a result, changes in projected forward interest rates may cause volatility in our monthly NAV.


Stockholders do not have the benefit of an independent due diligence review in connection with our public offerings which increases the risk of their investment.

Because the Advisor and the Dealer Manager are related, investors do not have the benefit of an independent due diligence review and investigation of the type normally performed by an unrelated, independent underwriter in connection with a securities offering. In addition, DLA Piper LLP (US) has acted as counsel to us, the Advisor and the Dealer Manager in connection with our public offerings and, therefore, investors do not have the benefit of a due diligence review that might otherwise be performed by independent counsel. Under applicable legal ethics rules, DLA Piper LLP (US) may be precluded from representing us due to a conflict of interest between us and the Dealer Manager. If any situation arises in which our interests are in conflict with those of the Dealer Manager or its related parties, we would be required to retain additional counsel and may incur additional fees and expenses. The lack of an independent due diligence review and investigation increases the risk of stockholders’ investment.

Our investors may be at a greater risk of loss than the Advisor and members of our management team.

We have taken certain actions to increase the stock ownership in our Company by our management team, the Advisor and our directors over the past couple of years, including the implementation of certain stock-based awards. As of December 31, 2018, the Advisor and members of our management team own approximately $9.3 million of stock or in stock-based awards (including unvested shares). While we have increased stock ownership over the last few years by management, the Advisor and our directors, the current level of ownership may be less than the management teams of other public real estate companies and, as a result, our investors may be at a greater risk of loss than the Advisor and other members of our management, especially as compared to these other companies in which stock ownership by management and directors may be significantly greater.

The availability and timing of cash distributions to stockholders is uncertain.

Our board of directors intends to authorize a monthly distribution of a certain dollar amount per share of our common stock using monthly record dates. However, the payment of class-specific fees results in different amounts of distributions being paid with respect to each class of shares. In addition, the expenses incurred in our operations reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders. Distributions may also be negatively impacted by the failure to deploy our net proceeds on an expeditious basis, the inability to find suitable investments that are not dilutive to our distributions, the poor performance of our investments (including vacancy or decline in rental rates), an increase in expenses for any reason (including expending funds for redemptions) and due to numerous other factors. Any request by the holders of partnership interests in the Operating Partnership (“OP Units”) to redeem some or all of their OP Units for cash may also impact the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders. In addition, our board of directors, in its discretion, may retain any portion of such funds for working capital. We cannot assure the stockholders that sufficient cash will be available to make distributions to our stockholders or that the amount of distributions will not either decrease or fail to increase over time. From time to time, we may adjust our distribution level and we may make such an adjustment at any time.

We have paid and may continue to pay distributions from sources other than our cash flow from operations, including, without limitation, the sale of assets, borrowings or offering proceeds, and we have no limits on the amounts we may pay from such sources.

Our distributions for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, on an annualized basis, were fully funded from our operations. When looking at individual quarters within those periods, in some cases our distributions were not fully funded from our operations for such quarters. In such cases, the shortfall was funded from borrowings, and ultimately made up with excess cash from operations from other quarters during the same period. In the future, we may fund distributions from sources other than cash flow from operations; however, our long-term strategy is to fund the payment of regular distributions to our stockholders entirely from our operations. If we are unsuccessful in investing the capital we raise in our public offerings or which is generated from the sale of existing assets on an effective and efficient basis that is accretive to our distribution level, we may be required to fund our distributions to our stockholders from a combination of our operations and financing activities, which include net proceeds of our public offerings and borrowings (including borrowings secured by our assets), or to reduce the level of our distributions. Using certain of these sources may result in a liability to us, which would require a future repayment. The use of these sources for distributions and the ultimate repayment of any liabilities incurred could adversely impact our ability to pay distributions in future periods, decrease the amount of cash we have available for new investments, repayment of debt, share redemptions and other corporate purposes, and potentially reduce stockholders’ overall return and adversely impact and dilute the value of their investment in shares of our common stock. We may pay distributions from sources other than cash flow from operations, including, without limitation, the sale of assets, borrowings or offering proceeds. Our ability to pay distributions solely from cash flows from operations has been impacted by the expiration of certain large leases in our portfolio. All distributions result in a decrease to our NAV while cash flow generated from our operations results in an increase to NAV. We generally seek to fund our distributions solely from our cash flow from operations and as a result, any cash flow from operations in excess of our distributions results in a net increase to NAV (ignoring other factors). Conversely, if and when our distributions exceed our cash flow from operations, the net effect would be and has been a


decrease to NAV (ignoring other factors). We have not established a limit on the amount of our distributions that may be paid from any of these sources.

If we raise substantial offering proceeds in a short period of time, we may not be able to invest all of the net offering proceeds promptly, which may cause our distributions and the long-term returns to our investors to be lower than they otherwise would.

We could suffer from delays in locating suitable investments. The more money we raise in our public offerings, the more difficult it will be to invest the net offering proceeds promptly. Therefore, the large size of our public offerings increases the risk of delays in investing our net offering proceeds. Our reliance on the Advisor to locate suitable investments for us at times when the management of the Advisor is simultaneously seeking to locate suitable investments for other entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor could also delay the investment of the proceeds of our public offerings. Delays we encounter in the selection, acquisition and development of income-producing properties would likely negatively affect our NAV, limit our ability to pay distributions to the stockholders and reduce their overall returns.

The performance component of the advisory fee is calculated on the basis of the overall investment return provided to holders of Fund Interests over a calendar year, so it may not be consistent with the return on stockholders’ shares.

The performance component of the advisory fee is calculated on the basis of the overall investment return provided to holders of Fund Interests (as defined below) (i.e., our outstanding shares and OP Units held by third parties) in any calendar year such that the Advisor will receive the lesser of (1) 12.5% of (a) the annual total return amount less (b) any loss carryforward, and (2) the amount equal to (x) the annual total return amount, less (y) any loss carryforward, less (z) the amount needed to achieve an annual total return amount equal to 5% of the NAV per Fund Interest at the beginning of such year (the “Hurdle Amount”). The foregoing calculations are calculated on a per Fund Interest basis and multiplied by the weighted-average Fund Interests outstanding during the year. The “annual total return amount” referred to above means all distributions paid or accrued per Fund Interest plus any change in NAV per Fund Interest since the end of the prior calendar year, adjusted to exclude the negative impact on annual total return resulting from our payment or obligation to pay, or distribute, as applicable, the performance component of the advisory fee as well as ongoing distribution fees (i.e., our ongoing class-specific fees). The “loss carryforward” referred to above will track any negative annual total return amounts from prior years and offset the positive annual total return amount for purposes of the calculation of the performance component of the advisory fee. The loss carryforward is zero as of the date of December 31, 2018. Therefore, payment of the performance component of the advisory fee (1) is contingent upon the annual total return to the holders of Fund Interests exceeding the 5% return, (2) will vary in amount based on our actual performance and (3) cannot cause the overall return to the holders of Fund Interests for the year to be reduced below 5%.

Additionally, the Advisor will provide us with a waiver of a portion of its fees generally equal to the amount of the performance component that would have been payable with respect to the Class E shares and the Series 1 Class E OP Units held by third parties until the NAV of such shares or units exceeds $10.00 per share or unit, the benefit of which will be shared among all holders of Fund Interests.

As a result, the performance component is not directly tied to the performance of the shares stockholders purchase, the class of shares purchased, or the time period during which the stockholders own their shares. The performance component may be payable to the Advisor even if the NAV of stockholders’ shares at the end of the calendar year is below their purchase price, and the thresholds at which increases in NAV count towards the overall return to the holders of Fund Interests are not based on stockholders’ purchase price. Because of the class-specific allocations of the ongoing distribution fee, which differ among classes, we do not expect the overall return of each class of Fund Interests to ever be the same. However, if and when the performance component of the advisory fee is payable, the expense will be allocated among all holders of Fund Interests ratably according to the NAV of their units or shares, regardless of the different returns achieved by different classes of Fund Interests during the year. Further, stockholders who redeem their shares during a given year may redeem their shares at a lower NAV per share as a result of an accrual for the estimated performance component of the advisory fee, even if no performance component is ultimately payable to the Advisor at the end of such calendar year. In addition, if the Advisor earns a performance component of the advisory fee, it will not be obligated to return any portion of advisory fees paid based on our subsequent performance.

Payment of fees and expenses to the Advisor and the Dealer Manager reduces the cash available for distribution and increases the risk that the stockholders will not be able to recover the amount of their investment in our shares.

The Advisor and the Dealer Manager perform services for us, including, among other things, the selection and acquisition of our investments, the management of our assets, the disposition of our assets, the financing of our assets and certain administrative services. We pay the Advisor and the Dealer Manager fees and expense reimbursements for these services, which will reduce the amount of cash available for further investments or distribution to our stockholders.


We are required to pay substantial compensation to the Advisor and its affiliates, which may be increased or decreased during our public offerings or future public offerings by a majority of our board of directors, including a majority of the independent directors.

Pursuant to our agreements with the Advisor and its affiliates, we are obligated to pay substantial compensation to the Advisor and its affiliates. Subject to limitations in our charter, the fees, compensation, income, expense reimbursements, interests and other payments that we are required to pay to the Advisor and its affiliates may increase or decrease during our public offerings or future offerings if such change is approved by a majority of our board of directors, including a majority of the independent directors. For example, we recently made substantial changes to our agreements with the Advisor and the Dealer Manager. These types of payments to the Advisor and its affiliates will decrease the amount of cash we have available for operations and new investments and could negatively impact our NAV, our ability to pay distributions and the stockholders overall return.

We are dependent upon the Advisor and its affiliates to conduct our operations and our public offerings; thus, adverse changes in their financial health or our relationship with them could cause our operations to suffer.

We are dependent upon the Advisor and its affiliates to conduct our operations and our public offerings. Thus, adverse changes to our relationship with, or the financial health of, the Advisor and its affiliates, including changes arising from litigation, could hinder their ability to successfully manage our operations and our portfolio of investments.

If we were to internalize our management or if another investment program, whether sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor or otherwise, conducts its own internalization transaction, we could incur significant costs and/or our business could be harmed.

At some point in the future, we may consider internalizing the functions performed for us by the Advisor, although we do not currently intend to do so. Any internalization transaction could result in significant payments to the owners of the Advisor, including in the form of our stock which could reduce the percentage ownership of our then existing stockholders and concentrate ownership in the owner of the Advisor. In addition, we rely on persons employed by the Advisor or its affiliates to manage our day-to-day operating and acquisition activities. If we were to effectuate an internalization of the Advisor, we may not be able to retain all of the employees of the Advisor or its affiliates or to maintain relationships with other entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor. In addition, some of the employees of the Advisor or its affiliates may provide services to one or more other investment programs. These programs or third parties may decide to retain some or all of the key employees in the future. If this occurs, these programs could hire certain of the persons currently employed by the Advisor or its affiliates who are most familiar with our business and operations, thereby potentially adversely impacting our business.

We have broad authority to incur debt, and high debt levels could hinder our ability to make distributions and could decrease the value of the stockholders’ investment in shares of our common stock.

Under our charter, we have a limitation on borrowing which precludes us from borrowing in excess of 300% of the value of our net assets, provided that we may exceed this limit if a higher level of borrowing is approved by a majority of our independent directors. High debt levels would cause us to incur higher interest charges, would result in higher debt service payments, could be accompanied by restrictive covenants and would generally make us more subject to the risks associated with leverage. These factors could limit the amount of cash we have available to distribute and could result in a decline in our NAV and in the value of the stockholders’ investment in shares of our common stock.

We are dependent on our tenants for revenue and we are exposed to risks if we are unable to collect rent from our tenants.

Our revenues from property investments depend on the creditworthiness of our tenants and will be adversely affected by the loss of or default by significant lessees. Much of our tenant base is presently comprised of and is expected to continue to be comprised of non-rated and non-investment grade tenants. Lease payment defaults by tenants could cause us to reduce the amount of distributions to you and could force us to find an alternative source of funding to pay any mortgage loan interest or principal, taxes, or other obligations relating to the property. In the event of a tenant default, we may also experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment and re-leasing our property. If a lease is terminated, the value of the property may be immediately and negatively affected and we may be unable to lease the property for the rent previously received or at all or sell the property without incurring a loss. As of December 31, 2018, no tenants represented more than 10.0% of total annualized base rent, and our 10 largest tenants represented 33.9% of total annualized base rent. We are not aware of any current tenants, including our largest tenant, whose inability to pay their contractual rental amounts would have a material adverse impact on our results of operations.

We are active portfolio managers and will incur transaction and transition costs each time that we acquire or dispose of an asset.

We believe that the real estate market is cyclical, with different demand for property types at different times. Although we do not invest for the short term, we are active portfolio managers and we will seek to take advantage of opportunities to acquire or dispose of assets presented to us by the real estate markets. Each time that we acquire or dispose of an asset, we incur


associated transaction costs which may include, but are not limited to, broker fees, attorney fees, regulatory filings and taxes. In addition, each time that we sell an income-generating asset, our operating results will be negatively impacted unless and until we are able to reinvest the proceeds in an investment with an equal or greater yield, which we may be unable to do. Accordingly, in order for us to provide positive returns to our stockholders from active portfolio management, the benefits of active management must outweigh the associated transaction and transition costs. We may be unable to achieve this. These factors could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, NAV and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

In order to maintain what we deem to be sufficient liquidity for our redemption program it may cause us to keep more of our assets in securities, cash, cash equivalents and other short-term investments than we would otherwise like which would affect returns.

In order to provide liquidity for share redemptions, we intend to, subject to any limitations and requirements relating to our intention to qualify as a REIT, maintain a number of sources of liquidity including (i) cash equivalents (e.g. money market funds), other short-term investments, U.S. government securities, agency securities and liquid real estate-related securities and (ii) one or more borrowing facilities. We may fund redemptions from any available source of funds, including operating cash flows, borrowings, proceeds from our public offerings and/or sales of our assets. This could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, NAV and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

RISKS RELATED TO CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The Advisor faces a conflict of interest because the fees it receives for services performed are based on our NAV, the procedures for which the Advisor will assist our board of directors in developing, overseeing, implementing and coordinating.

The Advisor assists our board of directors in developing, overseeing, implementing and coordinating our NAV procedures. It assists our Independent Valuation Firm in valuing our real property portfolio by providing the firm with property-level information, including (i) historical and projected operating revenues and expenses of the property; (ii) lease agreements on the property; and (iii) revenues and expenses of the property. Our Independent Valuation Firm assumes and relies upon the accuracy and completeness of all such information, does not undertake any duty or responsibility to verify independently any of such information and relies upon us and the Advisor to advise if any material information previously provided becomes inaccurate or was required to be updated during the period of its review. In addition, the Advisor may have some discretion with respect to valuations of certain assets and liabilities, which could affect our NAV. Because the Advisor is paid fees for its services based on our NAV, the Advisor could be motivated to influence our NAV and NAV procedures such that they result in an NAV exceeding realizable value, due to the impact of higher valuations on the compensation to be received by the Advisor. If our NAV is calculated in a way that is not reflective of our actual NAV, then the purchase price of shares of our common stock on a given date may not accurately reflect the value of our portfolio, and the stockholders’ shares may be worth less than the purchase price.

The Advisor’s fee may not create proper incentives or may induce the Advisor and its affiliates to make certain investments, including speculative investments, that increase the risk of our real estate portfolio.

The advisory fee we pay the Advisor is made up of a fixed component and a performance component. We will pay the Advisor the fixed component regardless of the performance of our portfolio. The Advisor’s entitlement to the fixed component, which is not based upon performance metrics or goals, might reduce its incentive to devote its time and effort to seeking investments that provide attractive risk-adjusted returns for our portfolio. We will be required to pay the Advisor the fixed component in a particular period despite experiencing a net loss or a decline in the value of our portfolio during that period. The performance component, which is based on our total distributions plus the change in NAV per share, may create an incentive for the Advisor to make riskier or more speculative investments on our behalf than it would otherwise make in the absence of such performance-based compensation.

The Advisor’s product specialists may have time constraints and other conflicts of interest due to relationships or affiliations they have with other entities, and our stockholders will not be able to assess the Advisor’s product specialists’ qualifications when deciding whether to make an investment in shares of our common stock.

The Advisor utilizes affiliated product specialists to assist in fulfilling its responsibilities to us. The Advisor’s product specialists generally do not owe fiduciary duties to us and may have time constraints and other conflicts of interest due to relationships or affiliations they have with other entities. Our stockholders will not be able to assess the qualifications of the Advisor’s product specialists when deciding whether to make an investment in shares of our common stock. Therefore, our stockholders may not be able to determine whether the Advisor’s product specialists are sufficiently qualified or otherwise desirable to work with.


The Advisor’s management personnel and product specialists face conflicts of interest relating to time management and there can be no assurance that the Advisor’s management personnel and product specialists will devote adequate time to our business activities or that the Advisor will be able to hire adequate additional employees.

All of the Advisor’s management personnel, other employees, affiliates and related parties may also provide services to other entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor. We are not able to estimate the amount of time that such management personnel and product specialists will devote to our business. As a result, certain of the Advisor’s management personnel and product specialists may have conflicts of interest in allocating their time between our business and their other activities which may include advising and managing various other real estate programs and ventures, which may be numerous and may change as programs are closed or new programs are formed. During times of significant activity in other programs and ventures, the time they devote to our business may decline and be less than we would require. There can be no assurance that the Advisor’s affiliates will devote adequate time to our business activities or that the Advisor will be able to hire adequate additional employees to perform the tasks currently being performed by the Advisor’s affiliates should the amount of time devoted to our business activities by such affiliates prove to be insufficient. Should the Advisor fail to allocate sufficient resources to perform its responsibilities to us for any reason we may be unable to achieve our investment objectives or pay distributions to our stockholders.

The Advisor and its affiliates, including our officers and two of our directors, face conflicts of interest caused by compensation arrangements with us and other entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor, which could result in actions that are not in our stockholders’ best interests.

Some of our executive officers, two of our directors and other key personnel are also officers, directors, managers, key personnel and/or holders of an ownership interest in the Advisor, the Dealer Manager and/or other entities related to the Sponsor. The Advisor and its affiliates receive substantial fees from us in return for their services and these fees could influence their advice to us. Among other matters, the compensation arrangements could affect their judgment with respect to:

the continuation, renewal or enforcement of our agreements with the Advisor and its affiliates, including the Advisory Agreement and the agreement with the Dealer Manager;

recommendations to our board of directors with respect to developing, overseeing, implementing and coordinating our NAV procedures, or the decision to adjust the value of certain of our assets or liabilities if the Advisor is responsible for valuing them;

public offerings of equity by us, which may result in increased fees for the Advisor and other related parties;

competition for tenants from entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor that own properties in the same geographic area as us;

investments in assets subject to product specialist agreements with affiliates of the Advisor; et

investments through a joint venture or other co-ownership arrangements, which may result in increased fees for the Advisor.

Considerations relating to compensation to the Advisor and its affiliates from us and other entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor could result in decisions that are not in our stockholders’ best interests, which could hurt our ability to pay our stockholders distributions or result in a decline in the value of our stockholders’ investment. Conflicts of interest such as those described above have contributed to stockholder litigation against certain other externally managed REITs that are not affiliated with us or the Sponsor.

When considering whether to recommend investments through a joint venture or other co-ownership arrangement, the fee arrangements between the Advisor and the proposed joint venture partner may incentivize the Advisor to recommend investing a greater proportion of our resources in joint venture investments than may be in our stockholders’ best interests.

When we invest in assets through joint ventures or other co-ownership arrangements, the Advisor may, directly or indirectly (including, without limitation, through us or our subsidiaries), receive fees from our joint venture partners and co-owners of our properties for the services the Advisor provides to them with respect to their proportionate interests. Fees received from joint venture entities or partners and paid, directly or indirectly (including without limitation, through us or our subsidiaries), to the Advisor may be more or less than similar fees that we pay to the Advisor pursuant to the Advisory Agreement. Because the Advisor may receive fees from our joint venture partners and co-owners in connection with our joint venture or other co-ownership arrangements, the Advisor may be incentivized to recommend a higher level of investment through joint ventures than may otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

The time and resources that entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor devote to us may be diverted and we may face additional competition due to the fact that these entities are not prohibited from raising money for another entity that makes the same types of investments that we target.

Entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor are not prohibited from raising money for another investment entity that makes the same types of investments as those we target. As a result, the time and resources they could devote to us may be


diverted. For example, the Dealer Manager is currently involved in other public offerings for other entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor. In addition, we may compete with any such investment entity for the same investors and investment opportunities. We may also co-invest with any such investment entity. Even though all such co-investments will be subject to approval by our independent directors, they could be on terms not as favorable to us as those we could achieve co-investing with an unrelated third party.

The Advisor may have conflicting fiduciary obligations if we acquire properties with an entity sponsored or advised by one of its affiliates or other related entities; as a result, in any such transaction we may not have the benefit of arm’s-length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties.

The Advisor may cause us to acquire an interest in a property from, or through a joint venture with, an entity sponsored or advised by one of its affiliates or to dispose of an interest in a property to such an entity. In these circumstances, the Advisor will have a conflict of interest when fulfilling its fiduciary obligation to us. In any such transaction we may not have the benefit of arm’s-length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties.

The fees we pay to entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor in connection with our public offerings of securities and in connection with the management of our investments were not determined on an arm’s-length basis, and therefore, we do not have the benefit of arm’s-length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties.

The Advisor, the Dealer Manager and other of the Advisor’s affiliates have earned and will continue to earn fees, commissions and expense reimbursements from us. The fees, commissions and expense reimbursements paid and to be paid to the Advisor, the Dealer Manager and other of the Advisor’s affiliates for services they provided us in connection with past offerings and in connection with our current public offering were not determined on an arm’s-length basis. As a result, the fees have been determined without the benefit of arm’s-length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties.

We will compete with entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor, for whom affiliates of the Sponsor provide certain advisory or management services, for opportunities to acquire, lease, finance or sell investments, and for customers, which may have an adverse impact on our operations.

We will compete with entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor, whether existing or created in the future, as well as entities for whom affiliates of the Sponsor provide certain advisory or management services, for opportunities to acquire, lease, finance or sell certain types of properties. We may also buy, lease, finance or sell properties at the same time as these entities are buying, leasing, financing or selling properties. In this regard, there is a risk that we will purchase a property that provides lower returns to us than a property purchased by entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor and entities for whom affiliates of the Sponsor provide certain advisory or management services.

Certain entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor own and/or manage properties in geographical areas in which we expect to own properties. Therefore, our properties may compete for customers with other properties owned and/or managed by these entities. The Advisor may face conflicts of interest when evaluating customer leasing opportunities for our properties and other properties owned and/or managed by these entities and these conflicts of interest may have a negative impact on our ability to attract and retain customers. The Sponsor and the Advisor have implemented lease allocation guidelines to assist with the process of the allocation of leases when we and certain other entities to which affiliates of the Advisor are providing certain advisory services have potentially competing properties with respect to a particular customer. Pursuant to the lease allocation guidelines, if we have an opportunity to bid on a lease with a prospective customer and one or more of these other entities has a potentially competing property, then, under certain circumstances, we may not be permitted to bid on the opportunity and in other circumstances, we and the other entities will be permitted to participate in the bidding process. The lease allocation guidelines are overseen by a joint management committee consisting of our management committee and certain other management representatives associated with other entities to which affiliates of the Advisor are providing similar services.

Because affiliates of the Sponsor and the Advisor currently sponsor and in the future may advise other investment vehicles (each, an “Investment Vehicle”) with overlapping investment objectives, strategies and criteria, potential conflicts of interest may arise with respect to industrial real estate investment opportunities (“Industrial Investments”). In order to manage this potential conflict of interest, in allocating Industrial Investments among the Investment Vehicles, the Sponsor follows an allocation policy (the “Allocation Policy”) which currently provides that if the Sponsor or one of its affiliates is awarded and controls an Industrial Investment that is suitable for more than one Investment Vehicle, based upon various Allocation Factors (as defined below), including without limitation availability of capital, portfolio objectives, diversification goals, target investment markets, return requirements, investment timing and the Investment Vehicle’s applicable approval discretion and timing, then the Industrial Investment will be allocated to Investment Vehicles on a rotational basis and will be offered to the Investment Vehicle at the top of the rotation list (that is, the Investment Vehicle that has gone the longest without being allocated an Industrial Investment). If an Investment Vehicle on the list declines the Industrial Investment, it will be rotated to the bottom of the rotation list. Exceptions may be made to the Allocation Policy for (x) transactions necessary to accommodate an exchange pursuant to Section 1031 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), or


(y) characteristics of a particular Industrial Investment or Investment Vehicle, such as adjacency to an existing asset, legal, regulatory or tax concerns or benefits, portfolio balancing or other Allocation Factors, which make the Industrial Investment more advantageous to one of the Investment Vehicles. In addition, the Sponsor may from time to time specify that it will not seek new allocations for more than one Investment Vehicle until certain minimum allocation levels are reached. “Allocation Factors” are those allocation factors that the Sponsor maintains and updates from time to time based on review by the Sponsor’s Head of Real Estate.

The Sponsor may from time to time grant to certain Investment Vehicles certain exclusivity, rotation or other priority (each, a “Special Priority”) with respect to Industrial Investments or other investment opportunities. The only currently existing Special Priority has been granted to Build-to-Core Industrial Partnership III LLC (“BTC III”), pursuant to which BTC III will be presented one out of every three qualifying development Industrial Investments (subject to the terms and conditions of the BTC III partnership agreement) until such time as capital commitments thereunder have been fully committed. The Sponsor or its affiliates may grant additional Special Priorities in the future and from time to time. In addition, to the extent that a potential conflict of interest arises with respect to an investment opportunity other than an Industrial Investment, the Sponsor currently expects to manage the potential conflict of interest by allocating the investment in accordance with the principles of the Allocation Policy the Sponsor follows with respect to Industrial Investments.

The Sponsor may modify its overall allocation policies from time to time. Any changes to the Sponsor’s allocation policies will be timely reported to our Conflicts Resolution Committee. The Advisor will be required to provide information to our board of directors on a quarterly basis to enable our board of directors, including the independent directors, to determine whether such policies are being fairly applied.

We have purchased and may in the future purchase real estate assets from third parties who have existing or previous business relationships with affiliates or other related entities of the Sponsor; as a result, in any such transaction, we may not have the benefit of arm’s-length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties.

We have purchased and may in the future purchase assets from third parties that have existing or previous business relationships with affiliates of the Sponsor. Affiliates of the Sponsor who also perform or have performed services for such third parties may have had or have a conflict in representing our interests in these transactions on the one hand and in preserving or furthering their respective relationships with such third parties on the other hand. In any such transaction, we will not have the benefit of arm’s-length negotiations of the type normally conducted between unrelated parties.

RISKS RELATED TO ADVERSE CHANGES IN GENERAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

Changes in global economic and capital market conditions, including periods of generally deteriorating real estate industry fundamentals, may significantly affect our results of operations and returns to our stockholders.

We are subject to risks generally incident to the ownership of real property, including changes in global, national, regional or local economic, demographic, political, real estate, or capital market conditions and other factors particular to the locations of our respective real property investments. We are unable to predict future changes in these market conditions. For example, an economic downturn or rise in interest rates could make it more difficult for us to lease properties or dispose of them. In addition, rising interest rates could make alternative interest bearing and other investments more attractive and, therefore, potentially lower the relative value of our existing real estate investments.

In addition, we believe the risks associated with our business are more severe during periods of economic slowdown or recession if these periods are accompanied by deteriorating fundamentals and declining values in the real estate industry. Because all of our debt-related investments outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and debt-related investments we may make in the future might consist of mortgages secured by real property, these same conditions could also adversely affect the underlying borrowers and collateral of assets that we own. Declining real estate values and deteriorating real estate fundamentals would also likely reduce the level of new mortgage loan originations, since borrowers often use increases in the value of their existing properties to support the purchase of, or investment in, additional properties. Furthermore, borrowers may not be able to pay principal and interest on such loans. Declining real estate values would also significantly increase the likelihood that we would incur losses on our debt investments in the event of a default because the value of our collateral may be insufficient to cover some or all of our basis in the investment.

For example, we recorded impairments of real properties, significant other-than-temporary impairment charges related to our real estate-related securities holdings, and provisions for losses on our debt-related investments as a result of such conditions that occurred during the last recession in the U.S. To the extent that there is a general economic slowdown or real estate fundamentals deteriorate, such factors could have a significant and adverse impact on our revenues, results from operations, financial condition, liquidity, overall business prospects and ultimately our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.


Uncertainty and volatility in the credit markets could affect our ability to obtain debt financing on reasonable terms, or at all, which could reduce the number of properties we may be able to acquire and the amount of cash distributions we can make to our stockholders.

The U.S. and global credit markets have in the past experienced severe dislocations and liquidity disruptions, which caused volatility in the credit spreads on prospective debt financings and constrained the availability of debt financing due to the reluctance of lenders to offer financing at high leverage ratios. Similar conditions in the future could adversely impact our ability to access additional debt financing on reasonable terms or at all, which may adversely affect investment returns on future acquisitions or our ability to make acquisitions.

If mortgage debt or unsecured debt is unavailable on reasonable terms as a result of increased interest rates, increased credit spreads, decreased liquidity or other factors, we may not be able to finance the initial purchase of properties. In addition, when we incur mortgage debt or unsecured debt, we run the risk of being unable to refinance such debt upon maturity, or of being unable to refinance on favorable terms.

If interest rates are higher or other financing terms, such as principal amortization, the need for a corporate guaranty, or other terms are not as favorable when we refinance debt or issue new debt, our income could be reduced. To the extent we are unable to refinance debt on reasonable terms, at appropriate times or at all, we may be required to sell properties on terms that are not advantageous to us, or that could result in the foreclosure of such properties. If any of these events occur, our cash flow could be reduced. This, in turn, could reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders and may hinder our ability to raise more capital by issuing securities or borrowing more money.

Economic events that may cause our stockholders to request that we redeem their shares may materially adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to achieve our investment objectives.

Future economic events affecting the U.S. economy generally, or the real estate sector specifically, could cause our stockholders to seek to sell their shares to us pursuant to our share redemption program. The redemptions of Class E, Class T, Class S, Class D, and Class I shares are subject to the 2% and 5% limits (as described above) (subject to potential carry-over capacity).  Even if we are able to satisfy all resulting redemption requests, our cash flow could be materially adversely affected. In addition, if we determine to sell valuable assets to satisfy redemption requests, our ability to achieve our investment objectives, including, without limitation, diversification of our portfolio by property type and location, moderate financial leverage, conservative operating risk and an attractive level of current income, could be materially adversely affected.

Inflation or deflation may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Although neither inflation nor deflation has materially impacted our operations in the recent past, increased inflation could have an adverse impact on our floating-rate mortgages, interest rates and general and administrative expenses, as these costs could increase at a rate higher than our rental and other revenue. Inflation could also have an adverse effect on consumer spending which could impact our tenants’ sales and, in turn, our percentage rents, where applicable. Conversely, deflation could lead to downward pressure on rents and other sources of income.

The failure of any banking institution in which we deposit our funds could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

We will seek to diversify our excess cash and cash equivalents among several banking institutions in an attempt to minimize exposure to any one of these entities. Currently, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) generally, only insures amounts up to $250,000 per depositor per insured bank. A small proportion of our cash and cash equivalents, primarily those used to fund property-level working capital needs, are currently held in FDIC-insured bank accounts. To the extent that we have deposited funds with banking institutions, then if any of such institutions ultimately fail, we would lose the amount of our deposits over the then current FDIC insurance limit. The loss of our deposits could reduce the amount of cash we have available to distribute or invest and would likely result in a decline in the value of the stockholders’ investment.

We intend to disclose funds from operations (“FFO”), a non-GAAP financial measure, in future communications with investors, including documents filed with the SEC. However, FFO is not equivalent to our net income or loss as determined under GAAP, and is not a complete measure of our financial position and results of operations.

We use, and we disclose to investors, FFO, which is considered a non-GAAP financial measure. For a discussion of FFO, including definitions, reconciliation to GAAP net income (loss), and its inherent limitations, see in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. FFO is not equivalent to our net income or loss as determined in accordance with GAAP. FFO and GAAP net income differ because FFO excludes gains or losses from sales of property and impairment of depreciable real estate, and adds back real estate-related depreciation and amortization.

No single measure can provide investors with sufficient information and investors should consider all of our disclosures as a whole in order to adequately understand our financial position, liquidity and results of operations. Because of the differences


between FFO and GAAP net income or loss, FFO may not be an accurate indicator of our operating performance, especially during periods in which we are acquiring properties. In addition, FFO is not necessarily indicative of cash flow available to fund cash needs and investors should not consider FFO as an alternative to cash flows from operations or an indication of our liquidity, or indicative of funds available to fund our cash needs, including our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. Neither the SEC nor any other regulatory body has passed judgment on the acceptability of the adjustments that we use to calculate FFO. Also, because not all companies calculate this type of measure the same way, comparisons with other companies may not be meaningful.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR GENERAL BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND OUR CORPORATE STRUCTURE

We depend on the Advisor and its key personnel; if any of such key personnel were to cease employment with the Advisor, our business could suffer.

Our ability to make distributions and achieve our investment objectives is dependent upon the performance of the Advisor in the acquisition, disposition and management of real properties and debt-related investments, the selection of tenants for our real properties, the determination of any financing arrangements and other factors. In addition, our success depends to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of certain of the Advisor’s key personnel, including Rajat Dhanda, David M. Fazekas, Andrea L. Karp, Richard D. Kincaid, Dwight L. Merriman III, Lainie P. Minnick, Gregory M. Moran, James R. Mulvihill, Taylor M. Paul, Scott W. Recknor, Jeffrey W. Taylor, J.R. Wetzel, Joshua J. Widoff and Evan H. Zucker, each of whom would be difficult to replace. We currently do not have, nor do we expect to obtain key man life insurance on any of the Advisor’s key personnel. If the Advisor were to lose the benefit of the experience, efforts and abilities of one or more of these individuals, our operating results and NAV could suffer.

Our board of directors determines our major policies and operations, which increases the uncertainties faced by our stockholders.

Our board of directors determines our major policies, including our policies regarding acquisitions, dispositions, financing, growth, REIT qualification, redemptions and distributions. Our board of directors may amend or revise these and other policies without a vote of the stockholders. Under the Maryland General Corporation Law and our charter, our stockholders have a right to vote only on limited matters. Our board of directors’ broad discretion in setting policies and our stockholders’ inability to exert control over those policies increases the uncertainty and risks our stockholders face, especially if our board of directors and our stockholders disagree as to what course of action is in our stockholders’ best interests.

Our UPREIT structure may result in potential conflicts of interest with limited partners in the Operating Partnership whose interests may not be aligned with those of our stockholders.

Limited partners in the Operating Partnership have the right to vote on certain amendments to the agreement that governs the Operating Partnership, as well as on certain other matters. Persons holding such voting rights may exercise them in a manner that conflicts with our stockholders’ interests. As general partner of the Operating Partnership, we are obligated to act in a manner that is in the best interests of all partners of the Operating Partnership. Circumstances may arise in the future when the interests of limited partners in the Operating Partnership may conflict with the interests of our stockholders. These conflicts may be resolved in a manner the stockholders believe is not in their best interests.

We may assume unknown liabilities in connection with acquisitions which could result in unexpected liabilities and expenses.

In connection with an acquisition, we may receive certain assets or interests in certain assets subject to existing liabilities, some of which may be unknown to us at the time of the acquisition. Unknown liabilities might include liabilities for cleanup or remediation of undisclosed environmental conditions, claims of tenants, vendors or other persons dealing with the entities prior to an acquisition (including those that had not been asserted or threatened prior to an acquisition), tax liabilities, and accrued but unpaid liabilities incurred in the ordinary course of business. If we acquire an entity, that entity may be subject to liabilities that become our responsibility upon acquisition of the entity. Our recourse with respect to such liabilities may be limited. Depending upon the amount or nature of such liabilities, our business, financial condition and results of operations, our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and the NAV of our shares may be adversely affected.

Tax protection agreements could limit our ability to sell or otherwise dispose of property contributed to the Operating Partnership.

In connection with contributions of property to the Operating Partnership, the Operating Partnership may enter into a tax protection agreement with the contributor of such property that provides that if we dispose of any interest in the contributed property in a taxable transaction within a certain time period, subject to certain exceptions, we may be required to indemnify the contributor for its tax liabilities attributable to the built-in gain that exists with respect to such property interests, and the tax liabilities incurred as a result of such tax protection payment. Therefore, although it may be in our stockholders’ best interests that we sell the contributed property, it may be economically prohibitive for us to do so because of these obligations.


Tax protection agreements may require the Operating Partnership to maintain certain debt levels that otherwise would not be required to operate our business.

Under a tax protection agreement, the Operating Partnership may provide the contributor of property the opportunity to guarantee debt or enter into a deficit restoration obligation. If we fail to make such opportunities available, we may be required to deliver to such contributor a cash payment intended to approximate the contributor’s tax liability resulting from our failure to make such opportunities available to that contributor and the tax liabilities incurred as a result of such tax protection payment. These obligations may require the Operating Partnership to maintain more or different indebtedness than we would otherwise require for our business.

Certain provisions in the partnership agreement of the Operating Partnership may delay or defer an unsolicited acquisition of us or a change of our control.

Provisions in the partnership agreement of the Operating Partnership may delay or defer an unsolicited acquisition of us or changes of our control. These provisions include, among others, redemption rights of qualifying parties and the rights of the limited partners to consent to transfers of the general partnership interest and mergers under specified circumstances. These provisions could discourage third parties from making proposals involving an unsolicited acquisition of us or a change of our control, although some stockholders might consider such proposals, if made, desirable.

The Operating Partnership’s private placements of beneficial interests in specific Delaware statutory trusts under our DST Program could subject us to liabilities from litigation or otherwise.

On March 2, 2016, we, through the Operating Partnership, initiated a program to raise capital in private placements exempt from registration under Section 506(b) of the Securities Act through the sale of beneficial interests in specific Delaware statutory trusts holding real properties, including properties currently indirectly owned by the Operating Partnership. These interests may serve as replacement properties for investors seeking to complete like-kind exchange transactions under Section 1031 of the Code. All of the interests sold to investors pursuant to such private placements will be leased-back by the Operating Partnership or a wholly owned subsidiary thereof, as applicable, and fully guaranteed by the Operating Partnership, although there can be no assurance that the Operating Partnership can or will fulfill these guarantee obligations. Additionally, the Operating Partnership will be given a fair market value purchase option giving it the right, but not the obligation, to acquire the interests in the Delaware statutory trust from the investors at a later time in exchange for OP Units. Investors who acquired interests pursuant to such private placements may have been seeking certain tax benefits that depend on the interpretation of, and compliance with, federal and state income tax laws and regulations. As the general partner of the Operating Partnership, we may become subject to liability, from litigation or otherwise, as a result of such transactions, including in the event an investor fails to qualify for any desired tax benefits.

The Operating Partnership’s private placements of beneficial interests in specific Delaware statutory trusts under our DST Program will not shield us from risks related to the performance of the real properties held through such structures.

Pursuant to the DST Program, the Operating Partnership intends to place certain of its existing real properties and/or acquire new properties to place into specific Delaware statutory trusts and then sell interests, via its taxable REIT subsidiary (“TRS”), in such trusts to third-party investors. We will hold long-term leasehold interests in the property pursuant to master leases that are fully guaranteed by the Operating Partnership, while the third-party investors indirectly hold some or all of the interests in the real estate. There can be no assurance that the Operating Partnership can or will fulfill these guarantee obligations. Although we will hold a fair market value purchase option to reacquire the real estate through a purchase of interests in the Delaware statutory trust, the purchase price will be based on the then-current fair market value of the third-party investor’s interest in the real estate, which will be greatly impacted by the rental terms fixed by the long-term master lease. Under the lease, we are responsible for subleasing the property to occupying tenants until the earlier of the expiration of the master lease or our exercise of the fair market value option, which means that we bear the risk that the underlying cash flow from the property and all capital expenditures may be less than the master lease payments until such time. Therefore, even though we will no longer own the underlying real estate, because of the fixed terms of the long-term master lease guaranteed by the Operating Partnership, negative performance by the underlying properties could affect cash available for distributions to our stockholders and will likely have an adverse effect on our results of operations and NAV.

We may own beneficial interests in trusts owning real property that will be subject to the agreements under our DST Program, which may have an adverse effect on our results of operations, relative to if the DST Program agreements did not exist.

In connection with the launch of our DST Program, we may own beneficial interests in trusts owning real property that are subject to the terms of the agreements provided by our DST Program. The DST Program agreements may limit our ability to encumber, lease or dispose of our beneficial interests. Such agreements could affect our ability to turn our beneficial interests into cash and could affect cash available for distributions to our stockholders. The DST Program agreements used in connection with the DST Program could also impair our ability to take actions that would otherwise be in the best interests of our


stockholders and, therefore, may have an adverse effect on our results of operations and NAV, relative to if the DST Program agreements did not exist.

Properties that are placed into the DST Program and later reacquired may be less liquid than other assets, which could impair our ability to utilize cash proceeds from sales of such properties for other purposes such as paying down debt, distributions, or additional investments.

Properties that are placed into the DST Program may later be reacquired through exercise of the option granted to our Operating Partnership. In such cases, the investors who become limited partners in the Operating Partnership will generally remain tied to the original DST Program asset in terms of basis and built-in-gain. As a result, if the original DST Program asset is subsequently sold, unless we effectuate a like-kind exchange under Section 1031 of the Code, then tax will be triggered on the original DST Program investors’ built-in-gain. Although we are not contractually obligated to do so, we have generally sought to execute 1031 exchanges in such situations rather than trigger gain. Any replacement property acquired in connection with a 1031 exchange will similarly be tied to the original DST Program investors with similar considerations if such replacement property ever is sold. As a result of these factors, placing properties into the DST Program may limit our ability to access liquidity from such properties or replacement properties through sale without triggering taxes due to the built-in-gain tied to original DST Program investors. Such reduced liquidity could impair our ability to utilize cash proceeds from sales for other purposes such as paying down debt, paying distributions, paying redemptions or making additional investments.

Cash redemptions to holders of OP Units will reduce cash available for distribution to our stockholders or to honor their redemption requests under our share redemption program.

The holders of OP Units (other than us) generally have the right to cause the Operating Partnership to redeem all or a portion of their OP Units for, at our sole discretion, shares of our common stock, cash, or a combination of both. Our election to redeem OP Units for cash may reduce funds available for distribution to our stockholders or to honor our stockholders’ redemption requests under our share redemption program.

Maryland law and our organizational documents limit our stockholders’ right to bring claims against our officers and directors.

Maryland law provides that a director will not have any liability as a director so long as he or she performs his or her duties in good faith, in a manner he or she reasonably believes to be in our best interests and with the care that an ordinarily prudent person in a like position would use under similar circumstances. In addition, our charter provides that, subject to the applicable limitations set forth therein or under Maryland law, no director or officer will be liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages. Our charter also provides that we will generally indemnify our directors, our officers, the Advisor and its affiliates for losses they may incur by reason of their service in those capacities unless their act or omission was material to the matter giving rise to the proceeding and was committed in bad faith or was the result of active and deliberate dishonesty, they actually received an improper personal benefit in money, property or services or, in the case of any criminal proceeding, they had reasonable cause to believe the act or omission was unlawful. Moreover, we have entered into separate indemnification agreements with each of our independent directors and executive officers. As a result, we and our stockholders have more limited rights against these persons than might otherwise exist under common law. In addition, we are obligated to fund the defense costs incurred by these persons in some cases. However, our charter does provide that we may not indemnify our directors, the Advisor and its affiliates for any liability or loss suffered by them unless they have determined that the course of conduct that caused the loss or liability was in our best interests, they were acting on our behalf or performing services for us, the liability or loss was not the result of negligence or misconduct by our non-independent directors, the Advisor and its affiliates or gross negligence or willful misconduct by our independent directors, and the indemnification is recoverable only out of our net assets and not from the stockholders.

Our bylaws designate the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Circuit Court for Baltimore City, Maryland shall be the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders with respect to our company, our directors, our officers or our employees (we note we currently have no employees). This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that the stockholder believes is favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees, which may discourage meritorious claims from being asserted against us and our directors, officers and employees.  Alternatively, if a court were to find this provision of our bylaws inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations. We adopted this provision because we believe it makes it less likely that we will be forced to incur the expense of defending duplicative actions in multiple forums and less likely that plaintiffs’ attorneys will be able to employ such litigation to coerce us into otherwise unjustified settlements, and we believe the


risk of a court declining to enforce this provision is remote, as the General Assembly of Maryland has specifically amended the Maryland General Corporation Law to authorize the adoption of such provisions

Stockholders’ interest will be diluted if we or the Operating Partnership issue additional securities.

Existing stockholders and new investors purchasing shares of common stock in our public offerings do not have preemptive rights to any shares issued by us in the future. Under our charter, we have authority to issue a total of 2.7 billion shares of capital stock. Of the total number of shares of capital stock authorized (a) 2.5 billion shares are designated as common stock, 500.0 million of which are classified as Class E shares, 500.0 million of which are classified as Class T shares, 500.0 million of which are classified as Class S shares, 500.0 million of which are classified as Class D shares and 500.0 million of which are classified as Class I shares and (b) 200.0 million shares are designated as preferred stock. Our board of directors may amend our charter to increase the aggregate number of authorized shares of capital stock or the number of authorized shares of capital stock of any class or series without stockholder approval. We intend to operate as a perpetual-life REIT, and investors purchasing shares in our public offerings will likely experience dilution of their equity investment in us as a result of our ongoing offerings, including the distribution reinvestment plan. Investors will also experience dilution if we issue securities in one or more private offerings, issue equity compensation pursuant to our equity incentive plans, issue shares to the Advisor in lieu of cash payments or reimbursements under the Advisory Agreement, or redeem OP Units for shares of common stock. In addition, we may in the future cause the Operating Partnership to issue a substantial number of additional OP Units in order to raise capital, acquire properties, consummate a merger, business combination or another significant transaction or to pay the Advisor in lieu of cash payments. OP Units may generally be converted into shares of our common stock, thereby diluting the percentage ownership interest of other stockholders. Ultimately, any additional issuance by us of equity securities or by the Operating Partnership of OP Units will dilute stockholders’ indirect interest in the Operating Partnership, through which we own all of our interests in our investments.

We may issue preferred stock or new classes of OP Units, which issuance could adversely affect those stockholders who purchased shares of our common stock in our public offerings.

If we ever created and issued preferred stock or one or more new classes of OP Units with a distribution preference over common stock, payment of any distribution preferences on outstanding preferred stock or OP Units would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of distributions on our common stock. Further, holders of preferred stock are normally entitled and holders of new classes of OP Units could be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event we liquidate, dissolve or wind up before any payment is made to our common stockholders, likely reducing the amount common stockholders would otherwise receive upon such an occurrence. Holders of preferred stock or new classes of OP Units could be given other preferential rights, such as preferential redemption rights or preferential tax protection agreements, that could reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of distributions on our common stock or otherwise negatively affect our common stockholders. In addition, under certain circumstances, the issuance of preferred stock, a new class of OP Units, or a separate class or series of common stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage:

a merger, offer or proxy contest;

the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities;

the removal of incumbent management; and/or

liquidity options that otherwise may be available.

We are not limited to making acquisitions with cash or borrowings.

We are not limited to making acquisitions with cash or borrowings. We may also make investments through either public or private offerings of equity securities from us or the Operating Partnership, and we may do so when attractive acquisition opportunities are available. We are not limited in the number or size of investments we may make with equity issuances, and we may effect a merger, business combination or another significant transaction through equity issuances. Such issuances may be comprised of existing classes of shares of our common stock or OP Units in the Operating Partnership, new classes of shares of our common stock or OP Units in the Operating Partnership with preferential terms compared to those of our existing investors (such as preferred stock, preferred OP Units, or contractual obligations to provide protection from adverse tax consequences), or tenancy-in-common interests. We and the Operating Partnership may, with the approval of a majority of our independent directors, agree to pay additional fees to the Advisor, the Dealer Manager and their affiliates in connection with any such transactions, which may negatively affect the NAV of stockholders’ shares, our ability to pay distributions and the stockholders’ overall return.

The limit on the percentage of shares of our common stock that any person may own may discourage a takeover or business combination that may have benefited our stockholders.

Our charter restricts the direct or indirect ownership by one person or entity to no more than 9.8% of the value of our then outstanding capital stock (which includes common stock and any preferred stock we may issue) and no more than 9.8% of the


value or number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our then outstanding common stock. This restriction may discourage a change of control of us and may deter individuals or entities from making tender offers for shares of our common stock on terms that might be financially attractive to stockholders or which may cause a change in our management. This ownership restriction may also prohibit business combinations that would have otherwise been approved by our board of directors and our stockholders. In addition to deterring potential transactions that may be favorable to our stockholders, these provisions may also decrease our stockholders’ ability to sell their shares of our common stock.

Although we are not currently afforded the full protection of the Maryland General Corporation Law relating to deterring or defending hostile takeovers, our board of directors could opt into these provisions of Maryland law in the future, which may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and may prevent our stockholders from receiving a premium price for their stock in connection with a business combination.

Under Maryland law, “business combinations” between a Maryland corporation and certain interested stockholders or affiliates of interested stockholders are prohibited for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder becomes an interested stockholder. These business combinations include a merger, consolidation, share exchange, or, in circumstances specified in the statute, an asset transfer or issuance or reclassification of equity securities. Also under Maryland law, control shares of a Maryland corporation acquired in a control share acquisition have no voting rights except to the extent approved by a vote of two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast on the matter. Shares owned by the acquirer, an officer of the corporation or an employee of the corporation who is also a director of the corporation are excluded from the vote on whether to accord voting rights to the control shares. Should our board of directors opt into these provisions of Maryland law, it may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer. Similarly, provisions of Title 3, Subtitle 8 of the Maryland General Corporation Law could provide similar anti-takeover protection.

Our charter includes a provision regarding tender offers that may discourage a stockholder from launching a tender offer for our shares.

Our charter provides that any person making a tender offer that is not otherwise subject to Regulation 14D of the Exchange Act, including any “mini-tender” offer, must comply with most of the provisions of Regulation 14D of the Exchange Act, including the notice and disclosure requirements. In addition, the offeror must provide us notice of such tender offer at least 10 business days before initiating the tender offer. If the offeror does not comply with the provisions set forth above, we will have the right to redeem that offeror’s shares, if any, and any shares acquired in such tender offer. In addition, the non-complying offeror will be responsible for all of our expenses in connection with that offeror’s noncompliance. This provision of our charter may discourage a stockholder from initiating a tender offer for our shares.

We depend on our relationships with lenders, joint venture partners, and property managers to conduct our business. If we fail to honor any of our contractual obligations, there could be a material and adverse impact on our ability to raise capital or manage our portfolio.

If we are viewed as developing underperforming properties, suffer sustained losses on our investments, default on a significant level of loans or experience significant foreclosure of our properties, our reputation could be damaged. Damage to our reputation could make it more difficult to successfully develop or acquire properties in the future and to continue to grow and expand our relationships with our lenders, joint venture partners, tenants and third-party management clients, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, NAV, results of operations and ability to make distributions.

Our business could suffer in the event the Advisor, the Dealer Manager, our transfer agent or any other party that provides us with services essential to our operations experiences system failures or other cyber incidents or a deficiency in cybersecurity.

The Advisor, the Dealer Manager, our transfer agent and other parties that provide us with services essential to our operations are vulnerable to service interruptions or damages from any number of sources, including computer viruses, malware, unauthorized access, energy blackouts, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication failures. Any system failure or accident that causes interruptions in our operations could result in a material disruption to our business. A cyber incident is considered to be any adverse event that threatens the confidentiality, integrity or availability of information resources. More specifically, a cyber incident is an intentional attack or an unintentional event that may include, but is not limited to, gaining unauthorized access to systems to disrupt operations, corrupt data, steal assets or misappropriate Company funds and/or confidential information, including, for example, confidential information regarding our stockholders. As reliance on technology in our industry has increased, so have the risks posed to our systems, both internal and those we have outsourced. In addition, the risk of cyber incidents has generally increased as the number, intensity and sophistication of attempted attacks and intrusions from around the world have increased. Cyber incidents may be carried out by third parties or insiders, including by computer hackers, foreign governments and cyber terrorists, using techniques that range from highly sophisticated efforts to more traditional intelligence gathering and social engineering aimed at obtaining information or funds. The remediation costs and lost revenues experienced by a victim of a cyber incident may be significant and significant resources may be required to repair system damage, protect against the threat of future security breaches or to alleviate problems, including reputational


harm, loss of revenues and litigation, caused by any breaches. If personal information such as social security numbers of our stockholders is stolen, our stockholders may be more likely to be victims of identity theft and other crimes. There also may be liability for any stolen assets or misappropriated Company funds or confidential information. Any material adverse effect experienced by the Advisor, the Dealer Manager, our transfer agent and other parties that provide us with services essential to our operations could, in turn, have an adverse impact on us.

The termination or replacement of the Advisor could trigger a repayment event under our mortgage loans for some of our properties and the credit agreement governing any line of credit or other form of unsecured debt that we obtain.

Lenders for certain of our properties may request provisions in the mortgage loan documentation that would make the termination or replacement of the Advisor an event requiring the immediate repayment of the full outstanding balance of the loan. Similarly, under any line of credit or other form of unsecured debt such as term loans that we currently have, or we may obtain in the future, the termination or replacement of the Advisor could trigger repayment of outstanding amounts under the credit agreement governing that line of credit or other form of unsecured debt. If a debt repayment event occurs, our results of operations, ability to pay distributions and financial condition may be adversely affected.

The success of our public offerings is dependent, in part, on the ability of the Dealer Manager to retain key employees and to successfully build and maintain a network of licensed broker-dealers.

The success of our public offerings and our ability to implement our business strategy is dependent upon the ability of the Dealer Manager to retain key employees and to build and maintain a network of licensed securities broker-dealers and other agents. If the Dealer Manager is unable to retain qualified employees or build and maintain a sufficient network of participating broker-dealers to distribute shares in our public offerings, we may not be able to raise adequate proceeds through our public offerings to implement our investment strategy. In addition, the Dealer Manager currently serves and may serve as dealer manager for other issuers. As a result, the Dealer Manager may experience conflicts of interest in allocating its time between our public offerings and such other issuers, which could adversely affect our ability to raise adequate proceeds through our public offerings and implement our investment strategy. Further, the participating broker-dealers retained by the Dealer Manager may have numerous competing investment products, some with similar or identical investment strategies and areas of focus as us, which they may elect to emphasize to their retail clients.

RISKS RELATED TO INVESTMENTS IN REAL PROPERTY

Real properties are illiquid investments, and we may be unable to adjust our portfolio in response to changes in economic or other conditions or sell a property if or when we decide to do so.

Real properties are illiquid investments and we may be unable to adjust our portfolio in response to changes in economic or other conditions. In addition, the real estate market is affected by many factors, such as general economic conditions, availability of financing, interest rates and other factors, including supply and demand, that are beyond our control. We cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any real property for the price or on the terms set by us, or whether any price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to us. We cannot predict the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of a real property. We may acquire real properties that are subject to contractual “lock-out” provisions that could restrict our ability to dispose of the real property for a period of time. In addition, U.S. federal tax laws that impose a 100% excise tax on gains from sales of dealer property by a REIT (generally, property held for sale, rather than investment) could limit our ability to sell properties and may affect our ability to sell properties without adversely affecting returns to our stockholders. These restrictions could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

We may also be required to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements before a property can be sold. We cannot assure stockholders that we will have funds available to correct such defects or to make such improvements.

In acquiring a real property, we may agree to restrictions that prohibit the sale of that real property for a period of time or impose other restrictions, such as a limitation on the amount of debt that can be placed or repaid on that real property. Our real properties may also be subject to resale restrictions. All of these provisions would restrict our ability to sell a property.

We are dependent on tenants for revenue, and our inability to lease our real properties or to collect rent from our tenants may adversely affect our results of operations, NAV and returns to our stockholders.

Our revenues from our real property investments are dependent on our ability to lease our real properties and the creditworthiness of our tenants and would be adversely affected by the loss of or default by one or more significant lessees. Furthermore, certain of our assets may utilize leases with payments directly related to tenant sales, where some or all of the amount of rent that we charge a tenant is calculated as a percentage of such tenant’s revenues over a fixed period of time, and a reduction in sales can reduce the amount of the lease payments required to be made to us by tenants leasing space in such assets. The success of those real properties depends on the financial stability of the respective tenants. The financial results of our tenants can depend on several factors, including but not limited to the general business environment, interest rates, inflation, the availability of credit, taxation and overall consumer confidence.


In addition, our ability to increase our revenues and operating income partially depends on steady growth of demand for the products and services offered by the tenants located in the assets that we own and manage. A drop in demand, as a result of a slowdown in the U.S. and global economy or otherwise, could result in a reduction in tenant performance and consequently, adversely affect our results of operations, NAV and returns to our stockholders. Inflation could also have an adverse effect on consumer spending which could impact our tenants’ sales and, in turn, our percentage rents, where applicable. Conversely, deflation could lead to downward pressure on rents and other sources of income.

If indicators of impairment exist in any of our real properties, for example, we experience negative operating trends such as prolonged vacancies or operating losses, we may not recover some or all of our investment. Refer to “Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for historical information regarding our impairments.

Lease payment defaults by tenants could cause us to reduce the amount of distributions to our stockholders and could force us to find an alternative source of funds to make mortgage payments on any mortgage loans or payments due under our unsecured credit facilities. In the event of a tenant default, we may also experience delays in enforcing our rights as landlord and may incur substantial costs in protecting our investment and re-leasing our real property. If a lease is terminated, we may be unable to lease the real property for the rent previously received or sell the real property without incurring a loss.

If the market for commercial real estate experiences increased vacancy rates, particularly in certain large metropolitan areas, it could result in lower revenues for us.

In the past decade, there have been global economic downturns that negatively impacted the commercial real estate market in the U.S., particularly in certain large metropolitan areas, and resulted in, among other things, increased tenant defaults under leases, generally lower demand for rentable space, and an oversupply of rentable space, all of which could lead to increased concessions, tenant improvement expenditures or reduced rental rates to maintain occupancies. We believe that the risks associated with our business could be more severe if the economy deteriorates again or if commercial real estate values decline. Our revenues will decline and our NAV and ability to pay distributions will be negatively impacted if our commercial properties experience higher vacancy rates or decline in value.

A real property that incurs a vacancy could be difficult to sell or re-lease.

A real property may incur a vacancy either by the continued default of a tenant under its lease or the expiration of the lease. In addition, certain of the real properties we acquire may have some vacancies at the time of closing. Certain other real properties may be specifically suited to the particular needs of a tenant and such real property may become vacant. Certain of our leases with retail tenants contain provisions giving the particular tenant the exclusive right to sell particular types of merchandise or provide specific types of services within the particular retail center. These provisions may limit the number and types of prospective tenants interested in leasing space in a particular retail property. Therefore, we may have difficulty obtaining a new tenant for any vacant space we have in our real properties. In certain cases, we may need to offer free rent or other concessions to attract tenants. If the vacancy continues for a long period of time, we would suffer reduced revenues, which could materially and adversely affect our liquidity and NAV, and result in lower distributions to our stockholders. In addition, the resale value of the real property could be diminished because the market value may depend principally upon the value of the leases of such real property.

Adverse economic and other conditions in the regions where our assets are located may have a significant adverse impact on our financial results.

A deterioration of general economic or other relevant conditions, changes in governmental laws and regulations, acts of nature, demographics or other factors in any of the states or the geographic region in which our assets are located could result in the loss of a tenant, a decrease in the demand for our properties and a decrease in our revenues from those markets, which in turn may have a disproportionate and material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition. In addition, some of our investments are located in areas that are more susceptible to natural disasters, and therefore, our tenants and properties are particularly susceptible to revenue loss, cost increase or damage caused by earthquakes or other severe weather conditions or natural disasters. Any significant loss due to a natural disaster may not be covered by insurance and may lead to an increase in the cost of insurance and expenses for our tenants, or could limit the future availability of such insurance, which could limit our tenants’ ability to satisfy their obligations to us.

In addition, our results of operations depend substantially on our ability to lease the spaces available in the assets that we own as well as the price at which we lease such space. Adverse conditions in the regions and specific markets where we operate may reduce our ability to lease our properties, reduce occupancy levels, restrict our ability to increase lease prices and force us to lower lease prices and/or offer tenant incentives. Should our assets fail to generate sufficient revenues for us to meet our obligations, our financial condition and results of operations, as well as our NAV and ability to make distributions or repay debt, could be adversely affected.


Properties that have significant vacancies, especially value-add or other types of discounted real estate assets, may experience delays in leasing up or could be difficult to sell, which could diminish our return on these properties and the return on the stockholders’ investment.

Our investments in value-add properties or other types of discounted properties may have significant vacancies at the time of acquisition. If vacancies continue for a prolonged period of time beyond the expected lease-up stage that we anticipate will follow any redevelopment or repositioning efforts, we may suffer reduced revenues, resulting in less cash available for distributions to our stockholders. In certain cases, we may need to offer free rent or other concessions to attract tenants. In addition, the resale value of the property could be diminished because the market value of a particular property depends principally upon the value of the cash flow generated by the leases associated with that property. Such a reduction on the resale value of a property could also reduce our NAV and the overall return on the stockholders’ investment.

Changes in supply of or demand for similar real properties in a particular area may increase the price of real property assets we seek to purchase or adversely affect the value of the real property assets that we own.

The real estate industry is subject to market forces and we are unable to predict certain market changes including changes in supply of or demand for similar real properties in a particular area. For example, if demand for the types of real property assets in which we seek to invest were to sharply increase or supply of those assets were to sharply decrease, the prices to acquire those assets could rise significantly. Any potential purchase of an overpriced asset could decrease our rate of return on these investments and result in lower operating results and overall returns to our stockholders. Likewise, a sharp increase in supply could adversely affect leasing rates and occupancy, which could lower operating results, our NAV and overall returns to our stockholders.

Actions of our joint venture partners could adversely impact our performance.

We have entered into and may continue to enter into joint ventures with third parties, including entities that are affiliated with the Advisor or entities sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor. We may be a general partner, but also could be a limited partner. Such venture may give substantial discretionary authority to a third party general partner or to an affiliate of the Advisor or Sponsor as general partner. We have purchased and developed and may also continue to purchase and develop properties in joint ventures or in partnerships, co-tenancies or other co-ownership arrangements with the sellers of the properties, affiliates of the sellers, developers or other persons. Such investments may involve risks not otherwise present with a direct investment in real estate, including, for example:

the possibility that our venture partner, co-tenant or partner in an investment might become bankrupt or otherwise be unable to meet its capital contribution obligations;

that such venture partner, co-tenant or partner may at any time have economic or business interests or goals which are or which become inconsistent with our business interests or goals;

that such venture partner, co-tenant or partner may be in a position to take action contrary to our instructions or requests or contrary to our policies or objectives;

that actions by such venture partner, co-tenant or partner could adversely affect our reputation, negatively impacting our ability to conduct business; ou

that such venture partner, co-tenant or partner has legal or other effective control over the asset, partnership or venture.

Actions by a joint venture partner or co-tenant might have the result of subjecting the property to liabilities in excess of those contemplated and may have the effect of reducing our stockholders’ returns.

Under certain joint venture arrangements, neither venture partner may have the power to control the venture, and an impasse could be reached, which might have a negative influence on the joint venture and decrease potential returns to our stockholders. In the event that a venture partner has a right of first refusal to buy out the other partner, it may be unable to finance such a buy-out at that time. It may also be difficult for us to sell our interest in any such joint venture or partnership or as a co-tenant in a particular property. In addition, to the extent that our venture partner or co-tenant is an affiliate of the Advisor or an entity sponsored or advised by affiliates of the Sponsor, certain conflicts of interest will exist.

We compete with numerous other parties or entities for real property investments and tenants, and we may not compete successfully.

We compete with numerous other persons or entities seeking to buy real property assets or to attract tenants to real properties we already own, which may have a negative impact on our ability to acquire real property assets or attract tenants on favorable terms, if at all, and the returns on our real property assets. These persons or entities may have greater experience and financial strength than us. For example, our competitors may be willing to offer space at rental rates below our rates, causing us to lose existing or potential tenants and pressuring us to reduce our rental rates to retain existing tenants or convince new tenants to lease space at our properties. Similarly, the opening of new competing assets near the assets that we own may hinder our ability


to renew our existing leases or to lease to new tenants, because the proximity of new competitors may divert existing or new tenants to such competitors. In addition, if market rental rates decline during the term of an existing lease, we may be unable to renew or find a new tenant without lowering the rental rate. Each of these factors could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, NAV and ability to repay debt and pay distributions to our stockholders.

Delays in the selection, acquisition, development and construction of real properties or debt investments may have adverse effects on portfolio diversification, results of operations and returns to our stockholders.

Delays we encounter in selecting, acquiring and developing additional real properties or debt investments could adversely affect our stockholders’ returns. The uncertain state of the real estate markets in recent years and the resulting incentives of lenders and sellers to retain their investments had previously led to generally lower transaction volume in the broader real estate market and for us, in part due to pricing and valuation uncertainties. It is possible that such disruptions and uncertainties may reoccur. Alternatively, increased competition for high quality investments may also limit our ability to make incremental accretive investments in real properties and debt investments. These factors may continue to have a negative effect on our stockholders’ returns, and may also hinder our ability to reach our portfolio diversification objectives.

In addition, where properties are acquired prior to the start of construction or during the early stages of construction, it will typically take several months to complete construction and rent available space. Therefore, we may not receive any income from these properties for a significant period of time following acquisition, and distributions to our stockholders could suffer. Delays in the completion of construction could give tenants the right to terminate preconstruction leases for space at a newly developed project. We may incur additional risks when we make periodic progress payments or other advances to builders prior to completion of construction. Each of those factors could result in increased costs of a project or loss of our investment. In addition, we will be subject to normal lease-up risks relating to newly constructed projects. Furthermore, the price we agree to for a real property will be based on our projections of rental income and expenses and estimates of the fair market value of the real property upon completion of construction. If our projections are inaccurate, we may pay too much for a property.

We may be unable to achieve our diversification goals or to realize benefits from diversification.

Our objective is to build a high-quality, diversified real estate portfolio. Although there can be no assurance that we will achieve this objective, we intend to diversify our portfolio by key portfolio attributes including, but not limited to, (i) property type, (ii) target market, with consideration given to geographic concentrations, (iii) average lease terms and portfolio occupancy expectations, (iv) tenant concentrations, including credit and exposure to particular businesses or industries and (v) debt profile with the goal of maximizing flexibility while seeking to minimize cost and mitigate the risks associated with changes in interest rates and debt maturities. However, we may not successfully implement our diversification strategy. For example, although we may target investments in four primary property categories of office, industrial, retail and multifamily, we currently do not own any multifamily investments and industrial holdings make up less than 7% of our portfolio (based on fair value) as of December 31, 2018. Even if we do fully achieve our diversification goals, it is possible our diversified portfolio will not perform as well as a portfolio that is concentrated in a particular type of real estate.

We may alter our exposure to various property categories and we may not always own properties in each category.

We may target investments in four primary property categories of office, industrial, retail and multifamily. Although we aim to diversify our real estate portfolio by owning properties in each of these categories, we may not always have significant holdings, or any holdings at all, in each category. For example, we currently have no multifamily investments and industrial holdings make up less than 7% of our portfolio (based on fair value) as of December 31, 2018. We may elect to increase or decrease our holdings in each category at any time and we may change our target property categories at any time. If we decrease or eliminate our holdings in any property category or cease to target any of the four property categories our real estate portfolio will be less diversified and we may not realize the benefits of diversification.

We are subject to the risk that, with respect to assets that we have acquired and may acquire based on growth potential, such growth potential is not realized.

Tól től 2016 nak nek 2018, we disposed of approximately $570.8 million of properties and we acquired approximately $163.1 million of properties. The properties that we sold were generally higher-yielding than the new properties we acquired, although we believe the acquired assets exhibit greater potential for future revenue growth. We believe that market conditions may cause us to continue to explore in certain markets the disposition of higher-yielding assets and in certain target markets the acquisition of assets that may generate lower initial yields but with greater growth potential. Although there can be no assurance that we will continue to pursue this strategy or be successful in its execution, for some period of time this may mean that higher-yielding assets are sold from our portfolio in exchange for assets that initially may produce lower current income but which we believe may generate increased income over time through increased tenant demand and/or rental rate growth in order to generate long-term growth in NAV. With respect to such assets, we are subject to the risk that the expected growth potential is not realized. This may result from a variety of factors, including but not limited to unanticipated changes in local market conditions or increased competition for similar properties in the same market. Acquiring properties that do not realize their expected growth


potential, or properties that take longer than expected to realize their growth potential, would likely negatively affect our NAV, limit our ability to pay distributions to stockholders and reduce their overall returns.

Our real properties are subject to property and other taxes that may increase in the future, which could adversely affect our cash flow.

Our real properties are subject to real and personal property and other taxes that may increase as tax rates change and as the properties are assessed or reassessed by taxing authorities. Certain of our leases provide that the property taxes, or increases therein, are charged to the lessees as an expense related to the real properties that they occupy while other leases will generally provide that we are responsible for such taxes. In any case, as the owner of the properties, we are ultimately responsible for payment of the taxes to the applicable governmental authorities. If property taxes increase, our tenants may be unable to make the required tax payments, ultimately requiring us to pay the taxes even if otherwise stated under the terms of the lease. If we fail to pay any such taxes, the applicable taxing authorities may place a lien on the property and the property may be subject to a tax sale. In addition, we will generally be responsible for property taxes related to any vacant space.

Potential changes to the U.S. tax laws could have a significant negative impact on our business operations, financial condition and earnings.

U.S. federal income tax laws governing REITs and other corporations and the administrative interpretations of those laws may be amended at any time, potentially with retroactive effect. Future legislation, new regulations, administrative interpretations or court decisions could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT or adversely affect our stockholders.

We are subject to litigation that could adversely affect our results of operations.

We are a defendant from time to time in lawsuits and/or regulatory proceedings relating to our business. Unfavorable outcomes resulting from such lawsuits and/or regulatory proceedings could adversely impact our business, financial condition, NAV or results of operations.

Uninsured losses or premiums for insurance coverage relating to real property may adversely affect our returns.

There are types of losses, generally catastrophic in nature, such as losses due to wars, acts of terrorism, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, pollution or environmental matters that are uninsurable or not economically insurable, or may be insured subject to limitations, such as large deductibles or co-payments. Risks associated with potential acts of terrorism could sharply increase the premiums we pay for coverage against property and casualty claims. Additionally, mortgage lenders sometimes require commercial property owners to purchase specific coverage against terrorism as a condition for providing mortgage loans. These policies may not be available at a reasonable cost, if at all, which could inhibit our ability to finance or refinance our real properties. In such instances, we may be required to provide other financial support, either through financial assurances or self-insurance, to cover potential losses. Changes in the cost or availability of insurance could expose us to uninsured property or casualty losses. In the event that any of our real properties incurs a property or casualty loss that is not fully covered by insurance, the value of our assets will be reduced by any such uninsured loss. In addition, we could be held liable for indemnifying possible victims of an accident. We cannot assure our stockholders that funding will be available to us for the repair or reconstruction of damaged real property in the future or for liability payments to accident victims.

The real estate industry is subject to extensive regulation, which may result in higher expenses or other negative consequences that could adversely affect us.

Our activities are subject to federal, state and municipal laws, and to regulations, authorizations and license requirements with respect to, among other things, zoning, environmental protection and historical heritage, all of which may affect our business. We may be required to obtain licenses and permits with different governmental authorities in order to acquire and manage our assets.

In addition, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”) which generally took effect in 2011, contains a sweeping overhaul of the regulation of U.S. financial institutions and financial markets. Key provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act require extensive rulemaking by the SEC and the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, some of which remains ongoing. Thus, the full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on our business cannot be fully assessed until all final implementing rules and regulations are promulgated.

Various rules currently in effect under the Dodd-Frank Act may have a significant impact on our business, including, without limitation, provisions of the legislation that increase regulation of and disclosure requirements related to investment advisors, swap transactions and hedging policies, corporate governance and executive compensation, investor protection and enforcement provisions, and asset-backed securities. In February 2017, the U.S. President ordered the Secretary of the U.S. Treasury to review certain existing rules and regulations, such as those promulgated under the Dodd-Frank Act; however, the implications of that review are not yet known and none of the rules and regulations promulgated under the Dodd-Frank Act have been modified or rescinded as of the date of this report.


For example, but not by way of limitation, the Dodd-Frank Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder provides for significantly increased regulation of the derivatives markets and transactions that affect our interest rate hedging activities, including: (i) regulatory reporting; (ii) subject to limited exemptions, mandated clearing through central counterparties and execution on regulated exchanges or execution facilities; and (iii) margin and collateral requirements. While the full impact of the Dodd-Frank Act on our interest rate hedging activities cannot be fully assessed until all final implementing rules and regulations are promulgated, the foregoing requirements may affect our ability to enter into hedging or other risk management transactions, may increase our costs in entering into such transactions, and/or may result in us entering into such transactions on less favorable terms than prior to the Dodd-Frank Act. For example, subject to an exception for “end-users” of swaps upon which we and our subsidiaries generally rely, we may be required to clear certain interest rate hedging transactions by submitting them to a derivatives-clearing organization. To the extent we are required to clear any such transactions, we will be required to, among other things, post margin in connection with such transactions. The occurrence of any of the foregoing events may have an adverse effect on our business and our stockholders’ return.

In addition, public authorities may enact new and more stringent standards, or interpret existing laws and regulations in a more restrictive manner, which may force companies in the real estate industry, including us, to spend funds to comply with these new rules. Any such action on the part of public authorities may adversely affect the value of our stockholders’ investments.

In the event of noncompliance with such laws, regulations, licenses and authorizations, we may face the payment of fines, project shutdowns, cancellation of licenses, and revocation of authorizations, in addition to other civil and criminal penalties.

Costs of complying with governmental laws and regulations related to environmental protection and human health and safety may be high.

All real property and the operations conducted on the real property are subject to federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to environmental protection and human health and safety. Some of these laws and regulations may impose joint and several liability on tenants, owners or operators for the costs to investigate or remediate contaminated properties, regardless of fault or whether the acts causing the contamination were legal.

Under various federal, state and local environmental laws, a current or previous owner or operator of real property may be liable for the cost of removing or remediating hazardous or toxic substances on such real property. Such laws often impose liability whether or not the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such hazardous or toxic substances. Third parties may also sue the owner or operator of a site for damages based on personal injury, natural resources or property damage or other costs, including investigation and clean-up costs resulting from the environmental contamination. In addition, the presence of hazardous substances, or the failure to properly remediate these substances, may adversely affect our ability to sell, rent or pledge such real property as collateral for future borrowings. Environmental laws also may impose restrictions on the manner in which real property may be used or businesses may be operated. A property owner who violates environmental laws may be subject to sanctions, which may be enforced by government agencies or, in certain circumstances, private parties. Some of these laws and regulations have been amended so as to require compliance with new or more stringent standards as of future dates. Compliance with new or more stringent laws or regulations or stricter interpretation of existing laws may require us to incur material expenditures. Future laws, ordinances or regulations may impose material environmental liability. Our tenants’ operations, the existing condition of land when we buy it, operations in the vicinity of our real properties, such as the presence of underground storage tanks, or activities of unrelated third parties may affect our real properties. In addition, there are various local, state and federal fire, health, life-safety and similar regulations with which we may be required to comply, and which may subject us to liability in the form of fines or damages for noncompliance. In connection with the acquisition and ownership of our real properties, we may be exposed to such costs in connection with such regulations. The cost of defending against environmental claims, of any damages or fines we must pay, of compliance with environmental regulatory requirements or of remediating any contaminated real property could materially and adversely affect our business, lower the value of our assets or results of operations and, consequently, lower our NAV and the amounts available for distribution to our stockholders.

Environmental laws in the U.S. also require that owners or operators of buildings containing asbestos properly manage and maintain the asbestos, adequately inform or train those who may come into contact with asbestos and undertake special precautions, including removal or other abatement, in the event that asbestos is disturbed during building renovation or demolition. These laws may impose fines and penalties on building owners or operators who fail to comply with these requirements and may allow third parties to seek recovery from owners or operators for personal injury associated with exposure to asbestos. Some of our properties may contain asbestos-containing building materials.

From time to time, we may acquire properties, or interests in properties, with known adverse environmental conditions where we believe that the environmental liabilities associated with these conditions are quantifiable and that the acquisition will yield an appropriate risk-adjusted return. In such an instance, we will underwrite the costs of environmental investigation, clean-up and monitoring into the cost. Further, in connection with property dispositions, we may agree to remain responsible for, and to bear the cost of, remediating or monitoring certain environmental conditions on the properties.


Generally, our properties are subject to a Phase I or similar environmental assessment by independent environmental consultants prior to or in connection with our acquisition of such properties. Phase I assessments are intended to discover and evaluate information regarding the environmental condition of the surveyed property and surrounding properties. Phase I assessments generally include a historical review, a public records review, an investigation of the surveyed site and surrounding properties and preparation and issuance of a written report, but do not include soil sampling or subsurface investigations and typically do not include an asbestos survey. We cannot give any assurance that an environmental liability that we believe would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations taken as a whole, will not currently exist at the time of acquisition or may not arise in the future, with respect to any of our properties. Material environmental conditions, liabilities or compliance concerns may arise after an environmental assessment has been completed. Moreover, there can be no assurance that future laws, ordinances or regulations will not impose any material environmental liability, or that the then current environmental condition of our properties will not be affected by tenants, by the condition of land or operations in the vicinity of such properties (such as releases from underground storage tanks), or by third parties unrelated to us.

The sale and disposition of real properties carry certain litigation risks at the property level that may reduce our profitability and the return on stockholder investment.

The acquisition, ownership and disposition of real properties carry certain specific litigation risks. Litigation may be commenced with respect to a property acquired by us in relation to activities that took place prior to our acquisition of such property. In addition, at the time of disposition of an individual property, a potential buyer may claim that it should have been afforded the opportunity to purchase the asset or alternatively that such potential buyer should be awarded due diligence expenses incurred or statutory damages for misrepresentation relating to disclosure made, if such buyer is passed over in favor of another as part of our efforts to maximize sale proceeds. Similarly, successful buyers may later sue us under various damage theories, including those sounding in tort, for losses associated with latent defects or other problems not uncovered in due diligence.

The costs associated with complying with the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Fair Housing Amendment Act may reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

Investment in real properties may also be subject to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, as amended, or the “Disabilities Act” and the Fair Housing Amendment Act, as amended, or the “Fair Housing Act.” Under the Disabilities Act, all places of public accommodation are required to comply with federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. The Disabilities Act has separate compliance requirements for “public accommodations” and “commercial facilities” that generally require that buildings and services be made accessible and available to people with disabilities. The Disabilities Act’s requirements could require us to remove access barriers and our failure to comply with the act’s requirements could result in the imposition of injunctive relief, monetary penalties or, in some cases, an award of damages. The Fair Housing Act requires multifamily dwellings first occupied after March 13, 1991 to comply with design and construction requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. We will attempt to acquire properties that comply with these acts or place the burden on the seller or other third party, such as a tenant, to ensure compliance with these acts. We cannot assure our stockholders that we will be able to acquire properties or allocate responsibilities in this manner. Any monies we use to comply with or defend lawsuits related to the Disabilities Act and Fair Housing Act will reduce our NAV and the amount of cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

We may not have funding for future tenant improvements, which may adversely affect the value of our assets, our results of operations and returns to our stockholders.

When a tenant at one of our real properties does not renew its lease or otherwise vacates its space in one of our buildings, it is likely that, in order to attract one or more new tenants, we will be required to expend substantial funds to construct new tenant improvements in the vacated space. We expect to invest the net proceeds from our offering in real estate-related investments, and we do not anticipate that we will maintain permanent working capital reserves. We do not currently have an identified funding source to provide funds that may be required in the future for tenant improvements and tenant refurbishments in order to attract new tenants. If we do not establish sufficient reserves for working capital or obtain adequate financing to supply necessary funds for capital improvements or similar expenses, we may be required to defer necessary or desirable improvements to our real properties. If we defer such improvements, the applicable real properties may decline in value, and it may be more difficult for us to attract or retain tenants to such real properties or the amount of rent we can charge at such real properties may decrease. We cannot assure our stockholders that we will have any sources of funding available to us for the repair or reconstruction of damaged real property in the future.

Lease agreements may have specific provisions that create risks to our business and may adversely affect us.

Our lease agreements are regulated by local, municipal, state and federal laws, which may grant certain rights to tenants, such as the compulsory renewal of their lease by filing lease renewal actions when certain legal conditions are met. A lease renewal action may represent two principal risks for us: (i) if we plan to vacate a given unit in order to change or adapt an asset’s mix of


tenants, the tenant could remain in that unit by filing a lease renewal action and interfere with our strategy; and (ii) if we desire to increase the lease price for a specific unit, this increase may need to be approved in the course of a lease renewal action, and the final value could be decided at the discretion of a judge. We would then be subject to the court’s interpretation and decision, and could be forced to accept an even lower price for the lease of the unit. The compulsory renewal of our lease agreements and/or the judicial review of our lease prices may adversely affect our cash flow and our operating results.

Certain of our lease agreements may not be “triple net leases,” under which the lessee undertakes to pay all the expenses of maintaining the leased property, including insurance, taxes, utilities and repairs. We will be exposed to higher maintenance, tax and property management expenses with respect to all of our leases that are not “triple net.”

Operating expenses, such as expenses for fuel, utilities, labor, building materials and insurance are not fixed and may increase in the future. There is no guarantee that we will be able to pass such increases on to our tenants. To the extent such increases cannot be passed on to our tenants, any such increases would cause our cash flow, NAV and operating results to decrease.

A change in U.S. accounting standards regarding operating leases may make the leasing of our properties less attractive to our potential tenants, which could reduce overall demand for our leasing services.

In order to address concerns raised by the SEC regarding the transparency of contractual lease obligations under the existing accounting standards for operating leases, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-02 (as defined in “Note 2 to the Consolidated Financial Statements”) on February 25, 2016, which substantially changes the current lease accounting standards, primarily by eliminating the concept of operating lease accounting. As a result, a lease asset and obligation will be recorded on the tenant’s balance sheet for all lease arrangements with terms greater than twelve months. In addition, ASU 2016-02 will impact the method in which contractual lease payments will be recorded. In order to mitigate the effect of the new lease accounting standards, tenants may seek to negotiate certain terms within new lease arrangements or modify terms in existing lease arrangements, such as shorter lease terms, which would generally have less impact on their balance sheets. Also, tenants may reassess their lease-versus-buy strategies. This could result in a greater renewal risk, a delay in investing our offering proceeds, or shorter lease terms, all of which may negatively impact our operations and our ability to pay distributions to our stockholders. The new leasing standard became effective on January 1, 2019, with early adoption permitted.

We depend on the availability of public utilities and services, especially for water and electric power. Any reduction, interruption or cancellation of these services may adversely affect us.

Public utilities, especially those that provide water and electric power, are fundamental for the sound operation of our assets. The delayed delivery or any material reduction or prolonged interruption of these services could allow certain tenants to terminate their leases or result in an increase in our costs, as we may be forced to use backup generators, which also could be insufficient to fully operate our facilities and could result in our inability to provide services. Accordingly, any interruption or limitation in the provision of these essential services may adversely affect us.

Acquiring or attempting to acquire multiple properties in a single transaction may adversely affect our operations.

From time to time, we may acquire multiple properties in a single transaction. Portfolio acquisitions typically are more complex and expensive than single-property acquisitions, and the risk that a multiple-property acquisition does not close may be greater than in a single-property acquisition. Portfolio acquisitions may also result in us owning investments in geographically dispersed markets, placing additional demands on the Advisor in managing the properties in the portfolio. In addition, a seller may require that a group of properties be purchased as a package even though we may not want to purchase one or more properties in the portfolio. In these situations, if we are unable to identify another person or entity to acquire the unwanted properties, we may be required to operate or attempt to dispose of these properties. We also may be required to accumulate a large amount of cash to fund such acquisitions. We would expect the returns that we earn on such cash to be less than the returns on investments in real property. Therefore, acquiring multiple properties in a single transaction may reduce the overall yield on our portfolio.

In the event we obtain options to acquire properties, we may lose the amount paid for such options whether or not the underlying property is purchased.

We may obtain options to acquire certain properties. The amount paid for an option, if any, is normally surrendered if the property is not purchased and may or may not be credited against the purchase price if the property is purchased. Any unreturned option payments will reduce the amount of cash available for further investments or distributions to our stockholders.

We will rely on property managers to operate our properties and leasing agents to lease vacancies in our properties.

The Advisor intends to hire property managers to manage our properties and leasing agents to lease vacancies in our properties. The property managers will have significant decision-making authority with respect to the management of our properties. Our ability to direct and control how our properties are managed on a day-to-day basis may be limited because we will engage third


parties to perform this function. Thus, the success of our business may depend in large part on the ability of our property managers to manage the day-to-day operations and the ability of our leasing agents to lease vacancies in our properties. Any adversity experienced by, or problems in our relationship with, our property managers or leasing agents could adversely impact the operation and profitability of our properties.

Our properties may be leased at below-market rates under long-term leases.

We may seek to negotiate longer-term leases to reduce the cash flow volatility associated with lease rollovers, in particular when contractual rent increases are included. In addition, where appropriate, we may seek leases that provide for operating expenses, or expense increases to be paid by the tenants. These leases may allow tenants to renew the lease with pre-defined rate increases. If we do not accurately judge the potential for increases in market rental rates or expenses, we may set the rental rates (or expense reimbursements) of these long-term leases at levels such that even after contractual rental increases, the resulting rental rates (or net revenues to us) are less than then-current market rental rates. Further, we may be unable to terminate those leases or adjust the rent or expense reimbursements to then-prevailing market rates. As a result, our income and distributions to our stockholders could be lower than if we did not enter into long-term leases.

Retail properties depend on anchor tenants to attract shoppers and could be adversely affected by the loss of a key anchor tenant.

Retail properties, like other properties, are subject to the risk that tenants may be unable to make their lease payments or may decline to extend a lease upon its expiration. A lease termination by a tenant that occupies a large area of a retail center (commonly referred to as an anchor tenant) could impact leases of other tenants. Other tenants may be entitled to modify the terms of their existing leases (or terminate their leases) in the event of a lease termination by an anchor tenant, or the closure of the business of an anchor tenant that leaves its space vacant even if the anchor tenant continues to pay rent. Any such modifications, conditions or terminations could be unfavorable to us as the property owner and could decrease rents or expense recoveries. Additionally, major tenant closures may result in decreased customer traffic, which could lead to decreased sales at other stores. In the event of default by a tenant or anchor store, we may experience delays and costs in enforcing our rights as landlord to recover amounts due to us under the terms of our agreements with those parties.

RISKS RELATED TO INVESTMENTS IN REAL ESTATE-RELATED DEBT AND SECURITIES

The mortgage loans in which we invest will be subject to the risk of delinquency, foreclosure and loss, which could result in losses to us.

Commercial mortgage loans are secured by commercial property and are subject to risks of delinquency and foreclosure and risks of loss. The ability of a borrower to repay a loan secured by a property typically is dependent primarily upon the successful operation of such property rather than upon the existence of independent income or assets of the borrower. If the net operating income of the property is reduced, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan may be impaired. Net operating income of an income-producing property can be affected by, among other things: tenant mix, success of tenant businesses, property management decisions, property location and condition, competition from comparable types of properties, changes in laws that increase operating expenses or limit rents that may be charged, any need to address environmental contamination at the property, the occurrence of any uninsured casualty at the property, changes in national, regional or local economic conditions and/or specific industry segments, current and potential future capital markets uncertainty, declines in regional or local real estate values, declines in regional or local rental or occupancy rates, increases in interest rates, real estate tax rates and other operating expenses, changes in governmental rules, regulations and fiscal policies, including environmental legislation, acts of God, terrorism, social unrest and civil disturbances.

In the event of any default under a mortgage loan held directly by us, we will bear a risk of loss of principal to the extent of any deficiency between the value of the collateral and the principal and accrued interest of the mortgage loan, which could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow from operations, and results from operations and limit amounts available for distribution to our stockholders. In the event of the bankruptcy of a mortgage loan borrower, the mortgage loan to such borrower will be deemed to be secured only to the extent of the value of the underlying collateral at the time of bankruptcy (as determined by the bankruptcy court), and the lien securing the mortgage loan will be subject to the avoidance powers of the bankruptcy trustee or debtor-in-possession to the extent the lien is unenforceable under state law. Foreclosure of a mortgage loan can be an expensive and lengthy process, which could have a substantial adverse effect on our anticipated return on the foreclosed mortgage loan. In addition, if we foreclose on a particular property, we could become, as owner of the property, subject to liabilities associated with such property, including liabilities related to taxes and environmental matters.

The mezzanine loans and B-notes in which we invest involve greater risks of loss than senior loans secured by income-producing real properties.

We may invest in mezzanine loans and B-notes that substantially take the form of subordinated loans secured by second mortgages on the underlying real property or loans secured by a pledge of the ownership interests of either the entity owning


the real property or the entity that owns the interest in the entity owning the real property. These types of investments involve a higher degree of risk than long-term senior mortgage loans secured by income-producing real property because the investment may become unsecured as a result of foreclosure by the senior lender. In the event of a bankruptcy of the entity providing the pledge of its ownership interests as security, we may not have full recourse to the assets of such entity, or the assets of the entity may not be sufficient to satisfy our mezzanine loan or B-note in whole or in part. In addition, there may be significant delays and costs associated with the process of foreclosing on collateral securing or supporting these investments. If a borrower defaults on our mezzanine loan, B-note or debt senior to our loan, or in the event of a borrower bankruptcy, our mezzanine loan or B-note will be satisfied only after the senior debt. As a result, we may not recover some or all of our investment. In addition, mezzanine loans or B-notes may have higher loan-to-value ratios than conventional mortgage loans, resulting in less equity in the real property and increasing the risk of loss of principal. Further, even if we are successful in foreclosing on the equity interests serving as collateral for our mezzanine loans or B-notes, such foreclosure will result in us inheriting all of the liabilities of the underlying mortgage borrower, including the senior mortgage on the applicable property. This may result in both increased costs to us and a negative impact on our overall debt covenants and occupancy levels. In many cases a significant restructuring of the senior mortgage may be required in order for us to be willing to retain longer term ownership of the property. If we are unsuccessful in restructuring the underlying mortgage debt in these scenarios, the mortgage lender ultimately may foreclose on the property causing us to lose any remaining investment.

A portion of our debt-related investments may be considered illiquid, and we may not be able to adjust our portfolio in response to changes in economic and other conditions.

Certain of the debt-related investments that we have purchased or may purchase in the future in connection with privately negotiated transactions are not or may not be registered under the relevant securities laws, resulting in a prohibition against their transfer, sale, pledge or other disposition except in a transaction that is exempt from the registration requirements of, or is otherwise effected in accordance with, those laws. As a result, our ability to vary our portfolio in response to changes in economic and other conditions may be limited. In addition, due to current credit market conditions, certain of our registered securities may not be as liquid as when originally purchased.

Bridge loans may involve a greater risk of loss than conventional mortgage loans.

We may provide bridge loans secured by first lien mortgages on properties to borrowers who are typically seeking short-term capital to be used in an acquisition, development or refinancing of real estate. The borrower may have identified an undervalued asset that has been undermanaged or is located in a recovering market. If the market in which the asset is located fails to recover according to the borrower’s projections, or if the borrower fails to improve the quality of the asset’s management or the value of the asset, the borrower may not receive a sufficient return on the asset to satisfy the bridge loan, and we may not recover some or all of our investment.

In addition, owners usually borrow funds under a conventional mortgage loan to repay a bridge loan. We may, therefore, be dependent on a borrower’s ability to obtain permanent financing to repay our bridge loan, which could depend on market conditions and other factors. Bridge loans, like other loans secured directly or indirectly by property, are subject to risks of borrower defaults, bankruptcies, fraud, losses and special hazard losses that are not covered by standard hazard insurance. In the event of any default under bridge loans held by us, we bear the risk of loss of principal and nonpayment of interest and fees to the extent of any deficiency between the value of the mortgage collateral and the principal amount of the bridge loan. Any such losses with respect to our investments in bridge loans could have an adverse effect on our NAV, results of operations and financial condition.

Interest rate and related risks may cause the value of our real estate-related securities investments to be reduced.

Interest rate risk includes the risk that fixed-income securities such as preferred and debt securities, and to a lesser extent dividend paying common stocks, will decline in value because of changes in market interest rates. Generally, when market interest rates rise, the market value of such securities will decline, and vice versa. In addition, during periods of rising interest rates, the average life of certain types of securities may be extended because of slower than expected principal payments. This may result in a below-market interest rate, an increase in the security’s duration, and a reduction in the value of the security. This is known as extension risk. During periods of declining interest rates, an issuer may be able to exercise an option to prepay principal earlier than scheduled, which is generally known as call or prepayment risk. If this occurs, we may be forced to reinvest in lower yielding securities. This is known as reinvestment risk. Preferred and debt securities frequently have call features that allow the issuer to repurchase the security prior to its stated maturity. An issuer may redeem an obligation if the issuer can refinance the debt at a lower cost due to declining interest rates or an improvement in the credit standing of the issuer. To the extent we invest in real estate-related securities going forward, these risks may reduce the value of such investments.


Investments in real estate-related securities are subject to specific risks relating to the particular issuer of the securities and may be subject to the general risks of investing in subordinated real estate-related securities.

We may invest in real estate-related common equity, preferred equity and debt securities of both publicly traded and private real estate companies. Investments in real estate-related securities will involve special risks relating to the particular issuer of the securities, including the financial condition and business outlook of the issuer. Issuers of real estate-related securities generally invest in real estate or real estate-related assets and are subject to the inherent risks associated with real estate-related debt investments discussed in this section Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Real estate-related securities may be unsecured and subordinated to other obligations of the issuer. As a result, investments in real estate-related securities are subject to risks of (i) limited liquidity in the secondary trading market, (ii) substantial market price volatility, (iii) subordination to the prior claims of banks and other senior lenders to the issuer and preferred equity holders, (iv) the operation of mandatory sinking fund or call/redemption provisions during periods of declining interest rates that could cause the issuer to reinvest redemption proceeds in lower yielding assets, (v) the possibility that earnings of the issuer may be insufficient to meet its debt service and distribution obligations and (vi) the declining creditworthiness and potential for insolvency of the issuer during periods of rising interest rates and economic downturn. These risks may adversely affect the value of outstanding real estate-related securities and the ability of the issuers thereof to pay dividends.

We may make investments in non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, which will be subject to currency rate exposure and risks associated with the uncertainty of foreign laws and markets.

Some of our real estate-related securities investments may be denominated in foreign currencies, and therefore, we expect to have currency risk exposure to any such foreign currencies. A change in foreign currency exchange rates may have an adverse impact on returns on our non-U.S. dollar denominated investments. Although we may hedge our foreign currency risk subject to the REIT income qualification tests, we may not be able to do so successfully and may incur losses on these investments as a result of exchange rate fluctuations. To the extent that we invest in non-U.S. dollar denominated securities, in addition to risks inherent in the investment in securities generally discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we will also be subject to risks associated with the uncertainty of foreign laws and markets including, but not limited to, unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, political and economic instability in certain geographic locations, difficulties in managing international operations, currency exchange controls, potentially adverse tax consequences, additional accounting and control expenses and the administrative burden of complying with a wide variety of foreign laws.

Investments in real estate-related debt securities are subject to risks including various creditor risks and early redemption features which may materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

The debt securities and other interests in which we may invest may include secured or unsecured debt at various levels of an issuer’s capital structure. The debt securities in which we may invest may not be protected by financial covenants or limitations upon additional indebtedness, may be illiquid or have limited liquidity, and may not be rated by a credit rating agency. Debt securities are also subject to other creditor risks, including (i) the possible invalidation of an investment transaction as a “fraudulent conveyance” under relevant creditors’ rights laws, (ii) so-called lender liability claims by the issuer of the obligation and (iii) environmental liabilities that may arise with respect to collateral securing the obligations. Our investments may be subject to early redemption features, refinancing options, prepayment options or similar provisions which, in each case, could result in the issuer repaying the principal on an obligation held by us earlier than expected, resulting in a lower return to us than anticipated or reinvesting in a new obligation at a lower return to us.

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH DEBT FINANCING

We incur mortgage indebtedness and other borrowings, which may increase our business risks, and could hinder our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

We have financed and may continue to finance a portion of the purchase price of certain of our investments by borrowing funds. As of December 31, 2018, our leverage ratio is approximately 47.7% of the fair value of our real property and debt-related investments (determined in accordance with our valuation procedures) inclusive of property and entity-level debt. Our current leverage target is between 40-60%. Although we will generally seek to maintain the targeted leverage ratio over the near term, we may change our targeted leverage ratio from time to time. In addition, we may vary from our target leverage ratio from time to time, and there are no assurances that we will maintain the targeted range disclosed above or achieve any other leverage ratio that we may target in the future. Our board of directors may from time to time modify our borrowing policy in light of then-current economic conditions, the relative costs of debt and equity capital, the fair values of our properties, general conditions in the market for debt and equity securities, growth and acquisition opportunities or other factors.

Under our charter, we have a limitation on borrowing that precludes us from borrowing in excess of 300% of the value of our net assets unless approved by a majority of the independent directors and disclosed to stockholders in our next quarterly report along with justification for the excess. Net assets for purposes of this calculation are defined to be our total assets (other than


intangibles), valued at cost prior to deducting depreciation or other non-cash reserves, less total liabilities. Generally speaking, the preceding calculation is expected to approximate 75% of the aggregate cost of our real property assets and debt-related investments before non-cash reserves and depreciation. In addition, we have incurred and may continue to incur mortgage debt secured by some or all of our real properties to obtain funds to acquire additional real properties or for working capital. We may also borrow funds to satisfy the REIT tax qualification requirement that we distribute at least 90% of our annual REIT taxable income to our stockholders. Furthermore, we may borrow funds if we otherwise deem it necessary or advisable to ensure that we maintain our qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes.

High debt levels would generally cause us to incur higher interest charges, and could result in higher debt service payments and could be accompanied by restrictive covenants. If there is a shortfall between the cash flow from a property and the cash flow needed to service mortgage debt on that property, then the amount available for distributions to our stockholders may be reduced. In addition, incurring mortgage debt increases the risk of loss of a property since defaults on indebtedness secured by a property may result in lenders initiating foreclosure action. In that case, we could lose the property securing the loan that is in default or be forced to sell the property at an inopportune time, thus reducing the value of our investments. For tax purposes, a foreclosure on any of our properties will be treated as a sale of the property for a purchase price equal to the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage. If the outstanding balance of the debt secured by the mortgage exceeds our tax basis in the property, we will recognize taxable income on foreclosure, but we would not receive any cash proceeds. We and the Operating Partnership have historically given certain full, partial or limited guarantees, and may continue to give full, partial or limited guarantees in the future, to lenders of mortgage debt on behalf of the entities that own our properties. When we give a guarantee on behalf of an entity that owns one of our properties, we are responsible to the lender for satisfaction of the debt if it is not paid by such entity. If any mortgage contains cross-collateralization or cross-default provisions, a default on a single property could affect multiple properties. If any of our properties are foreclosed upon due to a default, our NAV, liquidity and ability to pay cash distributions to our stockholders may be adversely affected.

Increases in interest rates could increase the amount of our debt payments and therefore adversely impact our operating results.

We currently utilize a significant amount of variable rate debt financing. To the extent we do not have derivative instruments to hedge exposure to changes in interest rates, increases in interest rates would increase our interest costs, which would reduce our cash flows and our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. If we need to repay existing debt during periods of rising interest rates, we could be required to liquidate one or more of our real property or debt-related investments at times, which may not permit realization of the maximum return on such investments.

Our derivative instruments used to hedge against interest rate fluctuations may not be successful in mitigating our risks associated with interest rates and could reduce the overall returns on our investments.

We utilize derivative instruments to hedge exposure to changes in interest rates on certain of our loans secured by our real properties, but no hedging strategy can protect us completely. We may use derivative instruments, such as forward starting swaps, to hedge interest rate risks associated with debt incurrences that we anticipate may occur. However, if we fail to accurately forecast such debt incurrences we will be subject to interest rate risk without successfully hedging the underlying transaction. Furthermore, the use of derivative instruments may cause us to forgo the benefits of otherwise favorable fluctuations in interest rates, since derivative instruments may prevent us from realizing the full benefits of lower borrowing costs in an environment of declining interest rates.

In addition, derivative instruments may not mitigate all of the risk associated with fluctuations in borrowing costs. Derivative instruments are generally used to hedge fluctuations in benchmark interest rates, such as London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and U.S. treasury security-based interest rates. However, there are other components of borrowing costs that may comprise the “spread” that lenders apply to the benchmark interest rates. The “spread” that lenders apply to benchmark interest rates when making loans may fluctuate from time to time. Fluctuations in the “spread” may be attributable to volatility in the credit markets or borrower-specific credit risk. When we enter into derivative instruments in anticipation of certain debt incurrences, such derivative instruments do not mitigate the risks of fluctuations in “spread” which could exacerbate the risks described above.

We cannot assure our stockholders that our hedging strategy and the derivatives that we use will adequately offset all of our risk related to interest rate volatility or that our hedging of these risks will not result in losses. These derivative instruments may also generate income that may not be treated as qualifying REIT income for purposes of the 75% or 95% REIT income tests. See “Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional discussion regarding our derivative instruments and the related impact on our results of operations.

We assume the credit risk of our counterparties with respect to derivative transactions.

We may enter into derivative contracts for risk management purposes to hedge our exposure to cash flow variability caused by changing interest rates on our future variable rate real estate loans receivable and variable rate notes payable. These derivative


contracts generally are entered into with bank counterparties and are not traded on an organized exchange or guaranteed by a central clearing organization. We would therefore assume the credit risk that our counterparties will fail to make periodic payments when due under these contracts or become insolvent. If a counterparty fails to make a required payment, becomes the subject of a bankruptcy case, or otherwise defaults under the applicable contract, we would have the right to terminate all outstanding derivative transactions with that counterparty and settle them based on their net market value or replacement cost. In such an event, we may be required to make a termination payment to the counterparty, or we may have the right to collect a termination payment from such counterparty. We assume the credit risk that the counterparty will not be able to make any termination payment owing to us. We may not receive any collateral from a counterparty, or we may receive collateral that is insufficient to satisfy the counterparty’s obligation to make a termination payment. Default by a counterparty may result in the loss of unrealized profits and may force us to enter into a replacement transaction at the then current market price.

We assume the risk that our derivative counterparty may terminate transactions early.

If we fail to make a required payment or otherwise default under the terms of a derivative contract, the counterparty would have the right to terminate all outstanding derivative transactions between us and that counterparty and settle them based on their net market value or replacement cost. In certain circumstances, the counterparty may have the right to terminate derivative transactions early even if we are not defaulting. If our derivative transactions are terminated early, it may not be possible for us to replace those transactions with another counterparty, on as favorable terms or at all.

We may be required to collateralize our derivative transactions.

We may be required to secure our obligations to our counterparties under our derivative contracts by pledging collateral to our counterparties. That collateral may be in the form of cash, securities or other assets. If we default under a derivative contract with a counterparty, or if a counterparty otherwise terminates one or more derivative contracts early, that counterparty may apply such collateral toward our obligation to make a termination payment to the counterparty. If we have pledged securities or other assets, the counterparty may liquidate those assets in order to satisfy our obligations. If we are required to post cash or securities as collateral, such cash or securities will not be available for use in our business. Cash or securities pledged to counterparties may be repledged by counterparties and may not be held in segregated accounts. Therefore, in the event of a counterparty insolvency, we may not be entitled to recover some or all collateral pledged to that counterparty, which could result in losses and have an adverse effect on our operations.

We may default on our derivative obligations if we default on the indebtedness underlying such obligations.

We have agreements with certain of our derivative counterparties that contain a provision where we could be declared in default on our derivative obligations if repayment of the underlying indebtedness is accelerated by the lender due to our default on the indebtedness. We also have agreements with certain other derivative counterparties that contain a provision whereby if we default on any of our indebtedness held by the Operating Partnership, including default where repayment of the indebtedness has not been accelerated by the lender, then we could also be declared in default on our derivative obligations. If we are declared in default under the terms of a derivative contract, the counterparty would have the right to terminate all outstanding derivative transactions between us and that counterparty and settle them based on their net market value or replacement cost.

We have entered into loan agreements that contain restrictive covenants relating to our operations, which could limit our ability to make distributions to our stockholders.

When providing financing, a lender typically imposes restrictions on us that may affect our distribution and operating policies and our ability to incur additional debt. Our loan agreements include restrictions, covenants, customary market carve-outs and/or guarantees by us. Certain financial covenants include tests of our general liquidity and debt servicing capability as well as certain collateral specific performance and valuation ratios. In addition, our loan agreements may contain covenants that limit our ability to further leverage the property, discontinue insurance coverage or replace the Advisor as our advisor. Further, our loan agreements may limit our ability to replace our property managers or terminate certain operating or lease agreements related to the property. These or other limitations may adversely affect our flexibility and our ability to achieve our investment objectives and make distributions to our stockholders. There can be no assurance that we will be able to comply with these covenants in the future, or that if we violate a covenant the lender would be willing to provide a waiver of such covenant. Violation of these covenants could result in the acceleration of maturities under the default provisions of our loan agreements. As of December 31, 2018, we were in compliance with our financial covenants.

We assume the risk that our credit facility lenders may not honor their commitments to us.

We may enter into credit facility arrangements with lenders pursuant to which, subject to certain conditions, they commit to lend us money, provide us with letters of credit or provide other financial services to us. If we fail to comply with the covenants in such arrangements, the lenders could declare us in default, accelerate the maturities of our borrowings and refuse to make loans or provide other financial services to us. Or, if a lender becomes unable or unwilling to honor its commitments to us, we may not receive the loans and other financial services for which we negotiated. In such a situation, a replacement lender may be


difficult or impossible to find quickly or at all. If we are unable to receive loans and other financial services, our liquidity and business could be negatively impacted.

We have entered into, and may continue to enter into, financing arrangements involving balloon payment obligations, which may adversely affect our ability to refinance or sell properties on favorable terms, and to make distributions to our stockholders.

Most of our current financing arrangements require us to make a lump-sum or “balloon” payment at maturity. Our ability to make a balloon payment at maturity will be uncertain and may depend upon our ability to obtain additional financing or our ability to sell a particular property. At the time the balloon payment is due, we may or may not be able to refinance the balloon payment on terms as favorable as the original loan or to sell a particular property at a price sufficient to make the balloon payment. The effect of a refinancing or sale could affect the rate of return to our stockholders and the projected time of disposition of our assets. In an environment of increasing interest rates, if we place debt on properties or obtain corporate debt, we run the risk of being unable to refinance such debt if interest rates are higher at the time a balloon payment is due. In addition, payments of principal and interest made to service our debts, including balloon payments, may leave us with insufficient cash to pay the distributions that we are required to pay to maintain our qualification as a REIT.

RISKS RELATED TO OUR TAXATION AS A REIT

Failure to qualify as a REIT could adversely affect our operations and our ability to make distributions.

If we were to fail to qualify as a REIT for any taxable year, we would be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at corporate rates. In addition, we would generally be disqualified from treatment as a REIT for the four taxable years following the year in which we lose our REIT status. Losing our REIT status would reduce our net earnings available for investment or distribution to stockholders because of the additional tax liability. In addition, distributions to stockholders would no longer be deductible in computing our taxable income and we would no longer be required to make distributions. To the extent that distributions had been made in anticipation of our qualifying as a REIT, we might be required to borrow funds or liquidate some investments in order to pay the applicable corporate income tax. In addition, although we intend to operate in a manner as to qualify as a REIT, it is possible that future economic, market, legal, tax or other considerations may cause our board of directors to recommend that we revoke our REIT election.

Failure of the Operating Partnership to be taxable as a partnership could cause us to fail to qualify as a REIT and we could suffer other adverse tax consequences.

We believe that the Operating Partnership will continue to be treated for federal income tax purposes as a partnership and not as an association or as a publicly traded partnership taxable as a corporation. If the Internal Revenue Service were successfully to determine that the Operating Partnership was properly treated as a corporation, the Operating Partnership would be required to pay U.S. federal income tax at corporate rates on its net income, its partners would be treated as stockholders of the Operating Partnership and distributions to partners would constitute distributions that would not be deductible in computing the Operating Partnership’s taxable income. In addition, we could fail to qualify as a REIT, with the resulting consequences described above.

To continue to qualify as a REIT, we must meet annual distribution requirements, which may result in us distributing amounts that may otherwise be used for our operations.

To maintain the favorable tax treatment accorded to REITs, we normally will be required each year to distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our real estate investment trust taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for distributions paid and by excluding net capital gains. We are subject to U.S. federal income tax on our undistributed taxable income and net capital gain and to a 4% nondeductible excise tax on any amount by which distributions we pay with respect to any calendar year are less than the sum of (i) 85% of our ordinary income, (ii) 95% of our capital gain net income and (iii) 100% of our undistributed income from prior years. These requirements could cause us to distribute amounts that otherwise would be spent on acquisitions of properties and it is possible that we might be required to borrow funds or sell assets to fund these distributions. Additionally, it is possible that we might not always be able to make distributions sufficient to meet the annual distribution requirements and to avoid corporate income taxation on the earnings that we distribute.

From time to time, we may generate taxable income greater than our net income, as defined by GAAP, or differences in timing between the recognition of taxable income and the actual receipt of cash may occur. If we do not have other funds available in these situations, we could be required to borrow funds on unfavorable terms, sell investments at disadvantageous prices or distribute amounts that would otherwise be invested in future acquisitions to make distributions sufficient to enable us to pay out enough of our taxable income to satisfy the REIT distribution requirement and to avoid corporate income tax and the 4% excise tax in a particular year. These alternatives could increase our costs or reduce our equity. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our ability to grow, which could adversely affect the value of our common stock.


Recharacterization of sale-leaseback transactions may cause us to lose our REIT status.

We may purchase real properties and lease them back to the sellers of such properties. If we were to attempt to structure a sale-leaseback transaction such that the lease would be characterized as a “true lease” that would allow us to be treated as the owner of the property for federal income tax purposes, we cannot assure our stockholders that the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) will not challenge such characterization. In the event that any such sale-leaseback transaction is challenged and recharacterized as a financing transaction or loan for U.S. federal income tax purposes, deductions for depreciation and cost recovery relating to such property would be disallowed. If a sale-leaseback transaction were so recharacterized, we might fail to satisfy the REIT qualification “asset tests” or the “income tests” and, consequently, lose our REIT status effective with the year of recharacterization. Alternatively, the amount of our REIT taxable income could be recalculated, which might also cause us to fail to meet the distribution requirement for a taxable year.

Our stockholders may have current tax liability on distributions if our stockholders elect to reinvest in shares of our common stock.

Even if our stockholders participate in our distribution reinvestment plan, our stockholders will be deemed to have received, and for U.S. federal income tax purposes will be taxed on, the amount reinvested in shares of our common stock to the extent the amount reinvested was not a tax-free return of capital. As a result, our stockholders that are not tax-exempt entities may have to use funds from other sources to pay their tax liability on the value of the common stock received.

Distributions payable by REITs do not qualify for the reduced tax rates that apply to other corporate distributions.

The current maximum U.S. federal income tax rate for distributions payable by corporations to domestic stockholders that are individuals, trusts or estates is 20% (plus a 3.8% “Medicare tax” surcharge). Distributions payable by REITs, however, generally are taxed at the ordinary income tax rate applicable to the individual recipient, rather than the maximum 20% income tax rate, subject to certain applicable deductions. The more favorable rates applicable to regular corporate distributions could cause investors who are individuals to perceive investments in REITs to be relatively less attractive than investments in the stocks of non-REIT corporations that pay distributions, which could adversely affect the value of the stock of REITs, including our common stock.

If we were considered to have actually or constructively paid a “preferential dividend” to certain of our stockholders, our status as a REIT could be adversely affected.

For taxable years ending on or before December 31, 2014, in order for distributions to be counted as satisfying the annual distribution requirement for REITs, and to provide us with a REIT-level tax deduction, the distributions must not have been “preferential dividends.” A dividend is not a preferential dividend if the distribution is (1) pro rata among all outstanding shares within a particular class, and (2) in accordance with the preferences among different classes of shares as set forth in our organizational documents. For the taxable year that began on January 1, 2015 and all future taxable years, so long as we continue to be a “publicly offered REIT” (i.e., a REIT which is required to file annual and periodic reports with the SEC under the Exchange Act), the preferential dividend rule will not apply to us.

In certain circumstances, we may be subject to federal and state income taxes as a REIT, which would reduce our cash available for distribution to our stockholders.

We may be subject to taxes on our income or property even if we qualify as a REIT for federal income tax purposes, including those described below:

In order to qualify as a REIT, we are required to distribute annually at least 90% of our REIT taxable income (determined without regard to the dividends-paid deduction or net capital gain) to our stockholders. If we satisfy the distribution requirement but distribute less than 100% of our REIT taxable income, we will be subject to corporate income tax on the undistributed income.

We will be required to pay a 4% nondeductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which the distributions we make to our stockholders in any calendar year are less than the sum of 85% of our ordinary income, 95% of our capital gain net income and 100% of our undistributed income from previous years.

If we have net income from the sale of foreclosure property that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business or other non-qualifying income from foreclosure property, we will be required to pay a tax on that income at the highest corporate income tax rate.

Any gain we recognize on the sale of a property, other than foreclosure property, that we hold primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business, could be subject to the 100% “prohibited transaction” tax unless the sale qualified for a statutory safe harbor that requires, among other things, a two-year holding period.


Our board of directors is authorized to revoke our REIT election without stockholder approval, which may cause adverse consequences to our stockholders.

Our charter authorizes our board of directors to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our stockholders, if it determines that it is not in our best interest to qualify as a REIT. In this event, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income and we would no longer be required to distribute most of our net income to our stockholders, which may cause a reduction in the total return to our stockholders.

Distributions to tax-exempt investors may be classified as unrelated business taxable income.

Neither ordinary nor capital gain distributions with respect to our common stock nor gain from the sale of common stock should generally constitute unrelated business taxable income to a tax-exempt investor. However, there are certain exceptions to this rule. In particular:

part of the income and gain recognized by certain qualified employee pension trusts with respect to our common stock may be treated as unrelated business taxable income if shares of our common stock are predominately held by qualified employee pension trusts, we are required to rely on a special look-through rule for purposes of meeting one of the REIT share ownership tests, and we are not operated in a manner to avoid treatment of such income or gain as unrelated business taxable income;

part of the income and gain recognized by a tax-exempt investor with respect to our common stock would constitute unrelated business taxable income if the investor incurs debt in order to acquire the common stock; et

part or all of the income or gain recognized with respect to our common stock by social clubs, voluntary employee benefit associations, supplemental unemployment benefit trusts and qualified group legal services plans that are exempt from federal income taxation under Sections 501(c)(7), (9), (17) or (20) of the Code may be treated as unrelated business taxable income.

The stock ownership limit imposed by the Code for REITs and our charter may restrict our business combination opportunities and stockholders may be restricted from acquiring or transferring certain amounts of our capital stock.

To maintain our status as a REIT under the Code, not more than 50% in value of our outstanding stock may be owned, directly or indirectly, by five or fewer individuals (as defined in the Code to include certain entities) at any time during the last half of each taxable year after our first year in which we qualify as a REIT. Our charter, with certain exceptions, authorizes our board of directors to take the actions that are necessary and desirable to preserve our qualification as a REIT. Unless an exemption is granted by our board of directors, no person (as defined to include entities) may own more than 9.8% in value of our capital stock or more than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our common stock following the completion of our public offerings. In addition, our charter will generally prohibit beneficial or constructive ownership of shares of our capital stock by any person who owns, actually or constructively, an interest in any of our tenants that would cause us to own, actually or constructively, more than a 9.9% interest in any of our tenants. Our board of directors may grant an exemption in its sole discretion, subject to such conditions, representations and undertakings as it may determine. These ownership limitations in our charter are common in REIT charters and are intended, among other purposes, to assist us in complying with the tax law requirements and to minimize administrative burdens. However, these ownership limits might also delay or prevent a transaction or a change in our control that might involve a premium price for our common stock or otherwise be in the best interests of our stockholders.

The tax on prohibited transactions will limit our ability to engage in transactions, including certain methods of syndicating and securitizing mortgage loans, that would be treated as sales for federal income tax purposes.

A REIT’s net income from prohibited transactions is subject to a 100% tax. In general, prohibited transactions are sales or other dispositions of property, other than foreclosure property, but including mortgage loans that are held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. We might be subject to this tax if we were to syndicate, dispose of or securitize loans in a manner that was treated as a sale of the loans for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Therefore, to avoid the prohibited transactions tax, we may choose not to engage in certain sales of loans at the REIT level and may limit the structures we utilize for our securitization transactions, even though the sales or structures otherwise might be beneficial to us.

In addition, the Code provides a safe harbor that, if met, allows us to avoid being treated as engaged in a prohibited transaction. In order to meet the safe harbor, (i) we must have held the property for at least two years (and, in the case of property which consists of land or improvements not acquired through foreclosure, we must have held the property for two years for the production of rental income), (ii) we must not have made aggregate expenditures includible in the basis of the property during the two-year period preceding the date of sale that exceed 30% of the net selling price of the property, and (iii) during the taxable year the property is disposed of, we must not have made more than seven property sales or, alternatively, the aggregate adjusted basis or fair market value of all the properties sold by us during the taxable year must not exceed 10% of the aggregate adjusted basis or 10% of the fair market value, respectively, of all our assets as of the beginning of the taxable year (with the 10% thresholds increased to 20% in certain circumstances). If the seven-sale limitation in (iii) above is not satisfied,


substantially all of the marketing and development expenditures with respect to the property must be made through an independent contractor from whom we do not derive or receive any income (or, in certain circumstances, by a taxable REIT subsidiary). We will endeavor to avoid engaging in prohibited transactions or we will attempt to comply with the safe harbor provisions. There is no assurance, however, that we will not engage in prohibited transactions.

Legislative or regulatory action could adversely affect investors.

In recent years, numerous legislative, judicial and administrative changes have been made to the U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to investments in REITs and similar entities. Additional changes to tax laws are likely to continue to occur in the future, and we cannot assure our stockholders that any such changes will not adversely affect the taxation of a stockholder. Any such changes could have an adverse effect on an investment in shares of our common stock. Although REITs generally receive better tax treatment than entities taxed as regular corporations, it is possible that future legislation would result in a REIT having fewer tax advantages, and it could become more advantageous for a company that invests in real estate to elect to be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a corporation. Our charter provides our board of directors with the power, under certain circumstances, to revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election and cause us to be taxed as a regular corporation, without the vote of our stockholders. Our board of directors has fiduciary duties to us and our stockholders and could only cause such changes in our tax treatment if it determines in good faith that such changes are in the best interest of our stockholders.

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations, was signed into law by the President on December 22, 2017.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act made significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules for taxation of individuals and corporations. In the case of individuals, the tax brackets were adjusted, the top federal income rate was reduced to 37%, special rules reduce taxation of certain income earned through pass-through entities and reduce the top effective rate applicable to ordinary dividends from REITs to 29.6% (through a 20% deduction for ordinary REIT dividends received that are not “capital gain dividends” or “qualified dividend income,” subject to complex limitations and potentially (pending IRS guidance) a minimum 45-day holding period with respect to shares of our common stock) and various deductions were eliminated or limited, including limiting the deduction for state and local taxes to $10,000 per year. Most of the changes applicable to individuals are temporary and apply only to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017 and before January 1, 2026. The top corporate income tax rate was reduced to 21%. There are only minor changes to the REIT rules (other than the 20% deduction applicable to individuals for ordinary REIT dividends received). The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act makes numerous other large and small changes to the tax rules that do not affect REITs directly but may affect our shareholders and may indirectly affect us. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act amended the rules for accrual of income so that income is taken into account no later than when it is taken into account on applicable financial statements, even if financial statements take such income into account before it would accrue under the original issue discount rules, market discount rules or other rules in the Internal Revenue Code. Such rule may cause us to recognize income before receiving any corresponding receipt of cash, which may make it more likely that we could be required to borrow funds or take other action to satisfy the REIT distribution requirements for the taxable year in which such income is recognized, although the precise application of this rule is unclear at this time. For taxable years after December 31, 2017, our business interest deductions may be limited to 30% of our adjusted taxable income (plus business interest income). This limitation does not apply to an “electing real property trade or business.” We believe our subsidiaries are eligible for this election, but the final determination and election will not be made until the filing of our 2018 tax returns. In addition, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act reduced the limit for individual’s mortgage interest expense to interest on $750,000 of mortgages and does not permit deduction of interest on home equity loans (after grandfathering all existing mortgages). Such change and the reduction in deductions for state and local taxes (including property taxes) may potentially (and negatively) affect the markets in which we may invest.

Stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors with respect to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and any other regulatory or administrative developments and proposals and their potential effect on investment in our common stock.

Recharacterization of transactions under the Operating Partnership’s private placements could result in a 100% tax on income from prohibited transactions, which would diminish our cash distributions to our stockholders.

The Internal Revenue Service could recharacterize transactions under the Operating Partnership’s private placements such that the Operating Partnership could be treated as the bona fide owner, for tax purposes, of properties acquired and resold by the entity established to facilitate the transaction. Such recharacterization could result in the income realized on these transactions by the Operating Partnership being treated as gain on the sale of property that is held as inventory or otherwise held primarily for the sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. In such event, such gain could constitute income from a prohibited transaction and might be subject to a 100% tax. If this occurs, our ability to pay cash distributions to our stockholders will be adversely affected.


Qualifying as a REIT involves highly technical and complex provisions of the Code.

Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions for which only limited judicial and administrative authorities exist. Even a technical or inadvertent violation could jeopardize our REIT qualification. Our continued qualification as a REIT will depend on our satisfaction of certain asset, income, organizational, distribution, stockholder ownership and other requirements on a continuing basis. In addition, our ability to satisfy the requirements to qualify as a REIT depends in part on the actions of third parties over which we have no control or only limited influence, including in cases where we own an equity interest in an entity that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes.

Foreign investors may be subject to the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act of 1980 (“FIRPTA”) on the sale of common shares if we are unable to qualify as a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity.”

A foreign person (subject to certain exceptions) disposing of a U.S. real property interest, including shares of a U.S. corporation whose assets consist principally of U.S. real property interests, is generally subject to a tax, known as FIRPTA, on the gain recognized on the disposition. FIRPTA does not apply, however, to the disposition of stock in a REIT if the REIT is a “domestically controlled qualified investment entity” (as defined in section 897(h)(4)(B) of the Code). A domestically controlled qualified investment entity includes a REIT in which, at all times during a specified testing period, less than 50% in value of its shares is held directly or indirectly by non-U.S. holders. We cannot assure our stockholders that we will qualify as a domestically controlled qualified investment entity. If we were to fail to so qualify, gain realized by a foreign investor on a sale of our common stock would be subject to FIRPTA unless our common stock was traded on an established securities market and the foreign investor did not at any time during a specified testing period directly or indirectly own more than 10% of the value of our outstanding common stock. Regardless of our status as a domestically controlled qualified investment entity, capital gain distributions attributable to a disposition of a U.S. real property interest will generally be subject to tax under FIRPTA in the hands of non-U.S. investors.

Compliance with REIT requirements may force us to liquidate otherwise attractive investments.

To qualify as a REIT, at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of our assets must consist of cash, cash items, government securities and qualified real estate assets. The remainder of our investments in securities (other than qualified real estate assets and government securities) generally cannot include more than 10% of the voting securities of any one issuer or more than 10% of the value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer unless we and such issuer jointly elect for such issuer to be treated as a “taxable REIT subsidiary” under the Code. Additionally, no more than 5% of the value of our assets (other than government securities and qualified real estate assets) can consist of the securities of any one issuer, and no more than 20% of the value of our assets may be represented by securities of one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries (25% in taxable years before December 31, 2017). If we fail to comply with these requirements, we must dispose of a portion of our assets within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter in order to avoid losing our REIT status and suffering adverse tax consequences. In order to satisfy these requirements, we may be forced to liquidate otherwise attractive investments.

The failure of a mezzanine loan to qualify as a real estate asset could adversely affect our ability to qualify as a REIT.

The IRS has provided a safe harbor for mezzanine loans but not rules of substantive law. Pursuant to the safe harbor, if a mezzanine loan meets certain requirements, it will be treated by the IRS as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset tests, and interest derived from the mezzanine loan will be treated as qualifying mortgage interest for purposes of the REIT 75% income test. We may acquire mezzanine loans that do not meet all of the requirements of this safe harbor. In the event we own a mezzanine loan that does not meet the safe harbor, the IRS could challenge such loan’s treatment as a real estate asset for purposes of the REIT asset and income tests and, if such a challenge were sustained, we could fail to qualify as a REIT.

We may enter into certain hedging transactions which may have a potential impact on our REIT status.

From time to time, we may enter into hedging transactions with respect to one or more of our assets or liabilities. Our hedging activities may include entering into interest rate and/or foreign currency swaps, caps, and floors, options to purchase these items, and futures and forward contracts. Income and gain from “hedging transactions” that we enter into to hedge indebtedness incurred or to be incurred to acquire or carry real estate assets and that are clearly and timely identified as such will be excluded from both the numerator and the denominator for purposes of the gross income and asset tests that apply to REITs. Moreover, any income from a transaction entered into primarily to manage risk of currency fluctuations with respect to any item of income that would be qualifying REIT income under the REIT gross income tests, and any gain from the unwinding of any such transaction, does not constitute gross income for purposes of the REIT annual gross income tests. To the extent that we do not properly identify such transactions as hedges or we hedge with other types of financial instruments, or hedge other types of indebtedness, the income from those transactions may not be treated as qualifying income for purposes of the REIT gross income tests, and might also give rise to an asset that does not qualify for purposes of the REIT asset tests.


INVESTMENT COMPANY RISKS

Avoiding registration as an investment company imposes limits on our operations, and failure to avoid registration reduces the value of the stockholders’ investment.

We conduct our operations so as not to become regulated as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”). To do so, we will have to continue to monitor the value of our securities in comparison with the value of our other assets and make sure that the value of our securities does not exceed 40% of the value of all of our assets on an unconsolidated basis. As a result, we may be unable to sell assets we would otherwise want to sell and may be unable to purchase securities we would otherwise want to purchase.

If we were obligated to register as an investment company, we would have to comply with a variety of substantive requirements under the Investment Company Act that impose, among other things:

limitations on capital structure;

restrictions on specified investments;

prohibitions on transactions with affiliates; et

compliance with reporting, record keeping, voting proxy disclosure and other rules and regulations that would significantly increase our operating expenses.

Registration with the SEC as an investment company would be costly, would subject our company to a host of complex regulations and would divert the attention of management from the conduct of our business.

Further, if it were established that we were an unregistered investment company, there would be a risk that we would be subject to monetary penalties and injunctive relief in an action brought by the SEC, that we would be unable to enforce contracts with third parties and that third parties could seek to obtain rescission of transactions undertaken during the period it was established that we were an unregistered investment company. Any such results would be likely to have a material adverse effect on us.

RETIREMENT PLAN RISKS

If the stockholders fail to meet the fiduciary and other standards under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”) or the Code as a result of an investment in our stock, stockholders could be subject to criminal and civil penalties.

There are special considerations that apply to employee benefit plans subject to ERISA (such as profit-sharing, section 401(k) or pension plans) and other retirement plans or accounts subject to Section 4975 of the Code (such as an IRA) that are investing in our shares. If the stockholders are investing the assets of such a plan or account in our common stock, stockholders should satisfy themselves that:

stockholder investment is consistent with their fiduciary and other obligations under ERISA and the Code;

stockholder investment is made in accordance with the documents and instruments governing the plan or IRA, including the plan’s or account’s investment policy;

stockholder investment satisfies the prudence and diversification requirements of Sections 404(a)(1)(B) and 404(a)(1)(C) of ERISA and other applicable provisions of ERISA and the Code;

stockholder investment in our shares, for which no trading market may exist, is consistent with the liquidity needs of the plan or IRA;

stockholder investment will not produce an unacceptable amount of “unrelated business taxable income” for the plan or IRA;

stockholder will be able to comply with the requirements under ERISA and the Code to value the assets of the plan or IRA annually; et

stockholder investment will not constitute a prohibited transaction under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code.

With respect to the annual valuation requirements described above, we expect to provide an estimated value of our net assets per share annually to those fiduciaries (including IRA trustees and custodians) who request it. Although this estimate will be based upon determinations of the NAV of our shares in accordance with our valuation procedures, no assurance can be given that such estimated value will satisfy the applicable annual valuation requirements under ERISA and the Code. The Department of Labor or the Internal Revenue Service may determine that a plan fiduciary or a fiduciary acting for an IRA is required to take further steps to determine the value of our common shares. In the absence of an appropriate determination of value, a plan fiduciary or a fiduciary acting for an IRA may be subject to damages, penalties or other sanctions.


Failure to satisfy the fiduciary standards of conduct and other applicable requirements of ERISA and the Code may result in the imposition of civil and criminal penalties, and can subject the fiduciary to claims for damages or for equitable remedies, including liability for investment losses. In addition, if an investment in our shares constitutes a prohibited transaction under ERISA or the Code, the fiduciary or IRA owner who authorized or directed the investment may be subject to the imposition of excise taxes with respect to the amount invested. Additionally, the investment transaction may have to be undone. In the case of a prohibited transaction involving an IRA owner, the IRA may be disqualified as a tax-exempt account and all of the assets of the IRA may be deemed distributed and subjected to tax. ERISA plan fiduciaries and IRA owners should consult with counsel before making an investment in our shares.

If our assets are deemed to be plan assets, the Advisor and we may be exposed to liabilities under Title I of ERISA and the Code.

In some circumstances where an ERISA plan holds an interest in an entity, the assets of the entity are deemed to be ERISA plan assets unless an exception applies. This is known as the “look-through rule.” Under those circumstances, the obligations and other responsibilities of plan sponsors, plan fiduciaries and plan administrators, and of parties in interest and disqualified persons, under Title I of ERISA and Section 4975 of the Code, as applicable, may be applicable, and there may be liability under these and other provisions of ERISA and the Code. We believe that our assets should not be treated as plan assets because the shares should qualify as “publicly-offered securities” that are exempt from the look-through rules under applicable Treasury Regulations. We note, however, that because certain limitations are imposed upon the transferability of shares so that we may qualify as a REIT, and perhaps for other reasons, it is possible that this exemption may not apply. If that is the case, and if the Advisor or we are exposed to liability under ERISA or the Code, our performance and results of operations could be adversely affected. Prior to making an investment in us, stockholders should consult with their legal and other advisors concerning the impact of ERISA and the Code on stockholder investment and our performance.

We do not intend to provide investment advice to any potential investor for a fee. However, we, the Advisor, and our respective affiliates receive certain fees and other consideration disclosed herein in connection with an investment. If it were determined we provided an investor in an employee pension benefit plan subject to ERISA, such as a profit sharing, Section 401(k) or pension plan, or of any other retirement plan or account subject to Section 4975 of the Code, such as an IRA, or any entity that includes such assets (each a “Benefit Plan”) with investment advice for a fee, it could give rise to a determination that we constitute an investment advice fiduciary under ERISA. Such a determination could give rise to claims that our fee arrangements constitute non-exempt prohibited transactions under ERISA or the Code and/or claims that we have breached a fiduciary duty to a Benefit Plan investor. Adverse determinations with respect to ERISA fiduciary status or non-exempt prohibited transactions could result in significant civil penalties and excise taxes.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.


ITEM 2.    PROPERTIES

As of December 31, 2018, our real estate portfolio consisted of 47 properties, which includes négy properties that are part of the DST Program, totaling approximately 7.7 million square feet located in 18 markets throughout the U.S., with 490 tenants, and was 90.6% leased with a weighted-average remaining lease term of approximately 5.2 years, based on annualized base rent, and 5.0 years, based on leased square footage. Refer to “Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional detail regarding the DST Program. Additionally, refer to “Note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for detail relating to our 2018 acquisition and disposition activity. Unless otherwise indicated, the term “fair value” of our real estate investments as used herein refers to the fair value as determined pursuant to our valuation procedures.

Portfolio Overview and Market Diversification. As of December 31, 2018, the average effective annual rent of our total real estate portfolio (calculated by dividing total annualized base rent, which includes the impact of any contractual tenant concessions (cash basis), by total occupied square footage) was approximately $20.65 per square foot. The following table summarizes certain operating metrics of our portfolio by market and by segment as of December 31, 2018:

($ and square feet in thousands)

Number of Properties

Investment in Real Estate Properties

% of Gross Investment Amount

Rentable Square Feet

% of Total Rentable Square Feet

% Leased (1)

Office properties:

Metro New York

1

$

237,535

11.8

%

594

7.8

%

70.6

%

Austin

3

160,003

8.0

585

7.6

95.8

San Francisco

1

127,204

6.3

263

3.4

89.1

East Bay

1

93,608

4.7

207

2.7

70.4

Denver

1

85,369

4.2

262

3.4

76.3

South Florida

2

83,676

4.2

363

4.7

76.0

Washington, DC

1

71,652

3.6

126

1.6

99.1

Princeton

1

53,079

2.6

167

2.2

100.0

Philadelphia

1

47,721

2.4

174

2.3

87.7

Dallas

1

40,031

2.0

155

2.0

95.5

Minneapolis/St. Paul

1

29,528

1.5

107

1.4

100.0

Total office properties

14

1,029,406

51.3

3,003

39.1

84.4

Retail properties:

Greater Boston

21

506,844

25.2

1,998

26.0

91.4

South Florida

2

107,200

5.3

206

2.7

98.4

Washington, DC

1

63,014

3.2

233

3.1

100.0

Metro New York

1

60,043

3.0

226

2.9

89.2

Raleigh

1

45,044

2.2

139

1.8

97.1

San Antonio

1

34,586

1.7

177

2.3

96.9

Tulsa

1

34,135

1.7

101

1.3

100.0

Total retail properties

28

850,866

42.3

3,080

40.1

93.2

Industrial properties:

Houston

1

37,740

1.9

352

4.6

90.3

Central Kentucky

1

30,979

1.6

727

9.5

100.0

Las Vegas, NV

1

24,671

1.2

248

3.2

100.0

Philadelphia

1

18,870

0.9

171

2.3

94.9

East Bay

1

16,201

0.8

96

1.2

100.0

Total industrial properties

5

128,461

6.4

1,594

20.8

97.3

Total real estate portfolio

47

$

2,008,733

100.0

%

7,677

100.0

%

90.6

%

(1)

Percentage leased is based on executed leases as of December 31, 2018.

Lease Terms. Lease terms typically range from one to 10 years, and often include renewal options. Most of our leases include fixed rental increases or Consumer Price Index-based rental increases and are not based on the income or profits of any person.


Lease Expirations. As of December 31, 2018, the weighted-average remaining term of our total leased portfolio was approximately 5.2 years, based on annualized base rent, and 5.0 years, based on leased square footage, excluding renewal options. The following table summarizes the lease expirations of our leased portfolio for leases in place as of December 31, 2018, without giving effect to the exercise of renewal options or termination rights, if any:

($ and square feet in thousands)

Number of

Leases

Annualized

Base Rent (1)

% of Total Annualized

Base Rent (1)

Leased Square Feet

% of Total Leased

Square Feet

2019

86

$

18,519

12.9

%

600

8.6

%

2020

112

20,610

14.4

920

13.2

2021

80

17,188

12.0

1,284

18.5

2022

66

14,264

9.9

735

10.6

2023

71

18,946

13.2

871

12.5

2024

51

9,322

6.5

431

6.2

2025

29

6,014

4.2

377

5.4

2026

25

4,351

3.0

228

3.3

2027

16

5,425

3.8

448

6.4

2028

21

7,777

5.4

299

4.3

Thereafter

31

21,151

14.7

762

11.0

Total leased

588

$

143,567

100.0

%

6,955

100.0

%

(1)

Annualized base rent is calculated as monthly base rent including the impact of any contractual tenant concessions (cash basis) per the terms of the lease as of December 31, 2018, multiplied by 12.

Tenant Diversification. We believe that the tenant base that occupies our real estate portfolio is generally stable and well-diversified. As of December 31, 2018, there were no tenants that represented more than 10.0% of total annualized base rent and two tenants that represented more than 10.0% of total leased square feet. The following table reflects our 10 largest tenants, based on annualized base rent, which occupied a combined 2.7 million square feet as of December 31, 2018:

($ and square feet in thousands)

Number of Locations (1)

Annualized Base Rent (2)

% of Total
Annualized
Base Rent (2)

Square Feet

% of Total
Leased Square Feet

The Stop & Shop Supermarket Company

12

$

13,470

9.4

%

777

11.2

%

Seton Healthcare

1

4,990

3.5

156

2.2

Novo Nordisk Inc.

1

4,816

3.4

167

2.4

Mizuho Bank, Ltd.

1

4,554

3.2

116

1.7

Trinet USA, Inc.

1

4,122

2.9

110

1.6

Amazon.com.kydc LLC

2

3,704

2.6

975

14.0

WeWork Companies, Inc.

1

3,480

2.4

70

1.0

I.A.M. National Pension Fund

1

3,303

2.3

63

0.9

Shaw's Supermarkets, Inc.

3

3,037

2.1

181

2.6

Citco Fund Services (USA), Inc.

1

3,021

2.1

70

1.0

Teljes

24

$

48,497

33.9

%

2,685

38.6

%

(1)

Reflects the number of properties for which the tenant has at least one lease in-place.

(2)

Annualized base rent is calculated as monthly base rent including the impact of any contractual tenant concessions (cash basis) per the terms of the lease as of December 31, 2018, multiplied by 12.

The majority of our tenants do not have a public corporate credit rating. We evaluate creditworthiness and financial strength of prospective tenants based on financial, operating and business plan information that such prospective tenants provide to us, as well as other market, industry, and economic information that is generally publicly available. As a result of this assessment, we may require that the tenant enhance their credit by providing us with security deposits, letters of credit from established financial institutions, or personal or corporate guarantees. Tenant creditworthiness often influences the amount of upfront tenant improvements, lease incentives, concessions or other leasing costs we may invest in a tenant lease.


Industry Diversification. As of December 31, 2018, our consolidated operating real properties had leases with 490 tenants. We intend to maintain a well-diversified mix of tenants to limit our exposure to any single tenant or industry. Our diversified investment strategy inherently provides for tenant diversity, and we continue to monitor our exposure relative to our larger tenant industry sectors. The table below illustrates the diversification of our portfolio by industry classifications of our tenants as of December 31, 2018:

($ and square feet in thousands)

Number of Leases

Annualized Base Rent (1)

% of Annualized Base Rent

Leased

Square Feet

% of Leased Square Feet

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

105

$

25,722

17.9

%

760

10.9

%

Food and Beverage Stores

34

21,975

15.3

1,391

20.0

Credit Intermediation and Related Activities

34

10,580

7.4

271

3.9

Funds, Trusts and Other Financial Vehicles

6

6,891

4.8

150

2.2

Food Services and Drinking Places

69

6,423

4.5

201

2.9

Hospitals

2

5,599

3.9

171

2.5

Rental and Leasing Services

11

5,060

3.5

125

1.8

Chemical Manufacturing

1

4,816

3.4

167

2.4

Health and Personal Care Services

33

4,410

3.1

227

3.3

Ambulatory Health Care Services

42

3,713

2.6

149

2.1

Más

251

48,378

33.6

3,343

48.0

Teljes

588

$

143,567

100.0

%

6,955

100.0

%

(1)

Annualized base rent is calculated as monthly base rent including the impact of any contractual tenant concessions (cash basis) per the terms of the lease as of December 31, 2018, multiplied by 12.

Debt Obligations. Our consolidated indebtedness is currently comprised of borrowings under our line of credit, term loans and mortgage note debt. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $1.0 billion of consolidated indebtedness with a weighted-average interest rate of 3.98%, which includes the effects of the interest rate swap agreements. The weighted-average remaining term of our consolidated debt as of December 31, 2018 volt 1.9 years, excluding extension options. The total gross book value of properties encumbered by our consolidated debt as of December 31, 2018 was approximately $599.0 million. See “Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” and Item 15, “Schedule III—Real Estate and Accumulated Depreciation” for additional information.

ITEM 3.    LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

As of the date hereof, there are no material pending legal proceedings to which we are a party or of which any of our properties are the subject.

ITEM 4.    MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.


PART II

ITEM 5.    MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Market Information

There is no public trading market for shares of our common stock and we do not have an obligation nor plans to apply for listing on any public trading market. The prices at which our shares of common stock are sold pursuant to our public offerings, or redeemed pursuant to our share redemption program, are based on the monthly NAV per share, which is determined in accordance with our valuation procedures, as described further below. On a limited basis, our stockholders may be able to have their shares redeemed through our share redemption program. Therefore, there is a risk that a stockholder may not be able to sell shares of our common stock at a time or price acceptable to the stockholder, or at all. Additionally, we may repurchase shares of our common stock pursuant to self-tender offers at a discount to NAV.

We commenced calculating a NAV on July 12, 2012. The following table presents the high and low NAV per share of each class of common stock for each quarter within the two most recent fiscal years. Each class of common stock has had the same NAV.

Quarter

Low

High

2018

First Quarter

$

7.46

$

7.46

Second Quarter

$

7.46

$

7.49

Third Quarter

$

7.49

$

7.54

Fourth Quarter

$

7.44

$

7.54

2017

First Quarter

$

7.52

$

7.57

Second Quarter

$

7.50

$

7.54

Third Quarter

$

7.45

$

7.51

Fourth Quarter

$

7.41

$

7.43

Net Asset Value Calculation

Our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, has adopted valuation procedures that contain a comprehensive set of methodologies to be used in connection with the calculation of our NAV. One fundamental element of the valuation process, the valuation of our real property portfolio, is managed by Altus Group U.S., Inc., an independent valuation firm (the “Independent Valuation Firm”) approved by our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors. All parties engaged by us in the calculation of our NAV, including the Advisor, are subject to the oversight of our board of directors. As part of this process, our Advisor reviews the estimates of the values of our real property portfolio and real estate-related assets for consistency with our valuation guidelines and the overall reasonableness of the valuation conclusions, and informs our board of directors of its conclusions (as needed, but at least once per year as part of their annual review, described below). Although our Independent Valuation Firm or other pricing sources may consider any comments received from us or our Advisor to their individual valuations, the final estimated values of our real properties or certain other assets and liabilities are determined by the Independent Valuation Firm or other pricing source. Our Independent Valuation Firm is available to meet with our board of directors to review valuation information, as well as our valuation guidelines and the operation and results of the valuation process generally. Our board of directors has the right to engage additional valuation firms and pricing sources to review the valuation process or valuations, if deemed appropriate. Every month our senior management team and Altus hold an NAV committee meeting to review the prior month’s adjustments to NAV and discuss any possible changes to the NAV policies and procedures which may be recommended to the board of directors. The information reviewed by this committee is summarized for the audit committee. At least once each calendar year our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, reviews the appropriateness of our valuation procedures. With respect to the valuation of our properties, the Independent Valuation Firm provides the board of directors with periodic valuation reports. From time to time our board of directors, including a majority of our independent directors, may adopt changes to the valuation procedures if it (1) determines that such changes are likely to result in a more accurate reflection of NAV or a more efficient or less costly procedure for the determination of NAV without having a material adverse effect on the accuracy of such determination or (2) otherwise reasonably believes a change is appropriate for the determination of NAV. We will publicly announce material changes to our valuation procedures or the identity or role of the Independent Valuation Firm. See Exhibit 4.4 of this Annual Report on Form


10-K for a more detailed description of our valuation procedures, including important disclosure regarding real property valuations provided by the Independent Valuation Firm.

As used below, “Fund Interests” means our outstanding shares of common stock, along with the OP Units held by third parties, and “Aggregate Fund NAV” means the NAV of all of the Fund Interests.

The following table sets forth the components of total NAV as of December 31, 2018 and September 30, 2018.

As of

(in thousands, except per Fund Interest)

31 décembre 2018

September 30, 2018

Office properties

$

1,107,500

$

1,102,250

Retail properties

862,000

869,600

Industrial properties

128,400

108,900

Total real property investments

$

2,097,900

$

2,080,750

Cash and other assets, net of other liabilities

(42,576

)

(14,205

)

Debt obligations

(1,004,117

)

(1,012,756

)

Aggregate Fund NAV

$

1,051,207

$

1,053,789

Total Fund Interests outstanding

141,334

139,727

The following table shows the NAV per Fund Interest as of December 31, 2018:

(in thousands, except per share data)

Teljes

Class T
Shares

Class S

Shares

Class D

Shares

Class I

Shares

Class E

Shares

Class E OP Units

Monthly NAV

$

1,051,207

$

20,695

$

78,217

$

20,665

$

278,058

$

575,607

$

77,965

Fund Interests outstanding

141,334

2,783

10,516

2,778

37,385

77,390

10,482

NAV Per Fund Interest

$

7.44

$

7.44

$

7.44

$

7.44

$

7.44

$

7.44

$

7.44

When the fair value of our real estate assets is calculated for the purposes of determining our NAV per share, the calculation is done using widely accepted methodologies and, as appropriate, the GAAP principles within the FASB Accounting Standards Codification under Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures (“ASC Topic 820”). However, our valuation procedures and our NAV are not subject to GAAP and will not be subject to independent audit.

Our valuation procedures, which address specifically each category of our assets and liabilities and are applied separately from the preparation of our financial statements in accordance with GAAP, involve adjustments from historical cost. There are certain factors which cause NAV to be different from net book value on a GAAP basis. Most significantly, the valuation of our real estate assets, which is the largest component of our NAV calculation, is provided to us by the Independent Valuation Firm on a monthly basis. For GAAP purposes, these assets are generally recorded at depreciated or amortized cost. In addition, we value our debt-related investments and real estate-related liabilities generally in accordance with fair value standards under GAAP. Other examples that will cause our NAV to differ from our GAAP net book value include the straight-lining of rent, which results in a receivable for GAAP purposes that is not included in the determination of our NAV. Third-party appraisers may value our individual real estate assets using appraisal standards that deviate from fair value standards under GAAP. The use of such appraisal standards may cause our NAV to deviate from GAAP fair value principles. We did not develop our valuation procedures with the intention of complying with fair value concepts under GAAP and, therefore, there could be differences between our fair values and the fair values derived from the principal market or most advantageous market concepts of establishing fair value under GAAP.

Under GAAP, we record liabilities for ongoing distribution fees (i) that we currently owe the Dealer Manager under the terms of our dealer manager agreement and (ii) for an estimate that we may pay to the Dealer Manager in future periods for shares of our common stock. As of December 31, 2018, we estimated approximately $7.9 million of ongoing distribution fees were potentially payable to the Dealer Manager. We do not deduct the liability for estimated future distribution fees in our calculation of NAV since we intend for our NAV to reflect our estimated value on the date that we determine our NAV. Accordingly, our estimated NAV at any given time does not include consideration of any estimated future distribution fees that may become payable after such date.

We include no discounts to our NAV for the illiquid nature of our shares, including the limitations on your ability to redeem shares under our share redemption program and our ability to suspend or terminate our share redemption program at any time. Our NAV generally does not consider exit costs (e.g. selling costs and commissions related to the sale of a property) that would likely be incurred if our assets and liabilities were liquidated or sold. While we may use market pricing concepts to value


individual components of our NAV, our per share NAV is not derived from the market pricing information of open-end real estate funds listed on stock exchanges.

Please note that our NAV is not a representation, warranty or guarantee that: (i) we would fully realize our NAV upon a sale of our assets; (ii) shares of our common stock would trade at our per share NAV on a national securities exchange; and (iii) a stockholder would be able to realize the per share NAV if such stockholder attempted to sell his or her shares to a third party.

The valuation for our real properties as of December 31, 2018 was provided by the Independent Valuation Firm in accordance with our valuation procedures and determined starting with the appraised value. The aggregate real property valuation of $2.10 billion compares to a GAAP basis of real properties (net of intangible lease liabilities and before accumulated amortization and depreciation) of $1.93 billion, representing an increase of approximately $172.2 million or 8.9%. Certain key assumptions that were used by the Independent Valuation Firm in the discounted cash flow analysis are set forth in the following table based on weighted-averages by property type:

Office

Retail

Industrial

Weighted-Average Basis

Exit capitalization rate

6.38

%

6.43

%

6.10

%

6.38

%

Discount rate / internal rate of return (“IRR”)

7.11

%

6.96

%

7.21

%

7.06

%

Annual market rent growth rate

3.02

%

2.91

%

3.00

%

2.97

%

Average holding period (years)

9.1

9.1

8.8

9.1

A change in the rates used would impact the calculation of the value of our real properties. For example, assuming all other factors remain constant, the changes listed below would result in the following effects on the value of our real properties:

Input

Hypothetical
Change

Office

Retail

Industrial

Weighted-Average Values

Exit capitalization rate (weighted-average)

0.25% decrease

2.77

%

2.43

%

2.87

%

2.63

%

0.25% increase

(2.56

)%

(2.24

)%

(2.63

)%

(2.43

)%

Discount rate (weighted-average)

0.25% decrease

2.08

%

1.95

%

1.91

%

2.02

%

0.25% increase

(2.03

)%

(1.90

)%

(1.87

)%

(1.97

)%

The valuation of our debt obligations as of December 31, 2018 was in accordance with fair value standards under GAAP. The key assumption used in the discounted cash flow analysis was the market interest rate. Market interest rates relating to the underlying debt obligations are based on unobservable Level 3 inputs, which we have determined to be our best estimate of current market interest rates of similar instruments. The weighted-average market interest rate used in the December 31, 2018 valuation was 4.12%.

A change in the market interest rates used would impact the calculation of the fair value of our debt obligations. For example, assuming all other factors remain constant, a decrease in the weighted-average market interest rate of 0.25% would increase the fair value of our debt obligations by approximately 0.16%. Alternatively, assuming all other factors remain constant, an increase in the weighted-average market interest rate of 0.25% would decrease the fair value of our debt obligations by approximately 0.23%.

Our hedge instruments are valued based on market expectations of future interest rates (the “forward interest rate curve”). An upward shift in the forward interest rate curve would increase the value of our current hedge positions, resulting in a positive impact to our NAV, and a downward shift in the forward interest rate curve would decrease the value of our current hedge positions, resulting in a negative impact to our NAV.

Share Redemption Program

While stockholders may request on a monthly basis that we redeem all or any portion of their shares pursuant to our share redemption program, we are not obligated to redeem any shares and may choose to redeem only some, or even none, of the shares that have been requested to be redeemed in any particular month, in our discretion. In addition, our ability to fulfill redemption requests is subject to a number of limitations. As a result, share redemptions may not be available each month. Under our share redemption program, to the extent we choose to redeem shares in any particular month, we will only redeem shares as of the last calendar day of that month (each such date, a “Redemption Date”). Shares redeemed on the Redemption Date remain outstanding on the Redemption Date and are no longer outstanding on the day following the Redemption Date. Redemptions will be made at the transaction price in effect on the Redemption Date, except that shares that have not been outstanding for at least one year will be redeemed at 95% of the transaction price (an “Early Redemption Deduction”). The Early Redemption Deduction may be waived in certain circumstances including: (i) in the case of redemption requests arising


from the death or qualified disability of the holder; (ii) in the event that a stockholder’s shares are redeemed because the stockholder has failed to maintain the $2,000 minimum account balance or (iii) with respect to shares purchased through our distribution reinvestment plan. To have your shares redeemed, your redemption request and required documentation must be received in good order by 4:00 p.m. (Eastern time) on the second to last business day of the applicable month. Settlements of share redemptions will be made within three business days of the Redemption Date. An investor may withdraw its redemption request by notifying the transfer agent before 4:00 p.m. (Eastern time) on the last business day of the applicable month.

The total amount of aggregate redemptions of Class T, Class S, Class D, Class I and Class E shares (based on the price at which the shares are redeemed) will be limited during each calendar month to 2% of the aggregate NAV of all classes as of the last calendar day of the previous quarter and in each calendar quarter will be limited to 5% of the aggregate NAV of all classes of shares as of the last calendar day of the previous calendar quarter; provided, however, that every month and quarter each class of our common stock will be allocated capacity within such aggregate limit to allow stockholders in such class to either (a) redeem shares (based on the price at which the shares are redeemed) equal to at least 2% of the aggregate NAV of such share class as of the last calendar day of the previous quarter, or, if more limiting, (b) redeem shares (based on the price at which the shares are redeemed) over the course of a given quarter equal to at least 5% of the aggregate NAV of such share class as of the last calendar day of the previous quarter (collectively referred to herein as the “2% and 5% limits”), which in the second and third months of a quarter could be less than 2% of the NAV of such share class. In the event that we determine to redeem some but not all of the shares submitted for redemption during any month, shares redeemed at the end of the month will be redeemed on a pro rata basis. Even if the class-specific allocations are exceeded for a class, the program may offer such class additional capacity under the aggregate program limits. Redemptions and pro rata treatment, if necessary, will first be applied within the class-specific allocated capacity and then applied on an aggregate basis to the extent there is remaining capacity.  All unsatisfied redemption requests must be resubmitted after the start of the next month or quarter, or upon the recommencement of the share redemption program, as applicable.

For both the aggregate and class-specific allocations described above, (i) provided that the share redemption program has been operating and not suspended for the first month of a given quarter and that all properly submitted redemption requests were satisfied, any unused capacity for that month will carry over to the second month and (ii) provided that the share redemption program has been operating and not suspended for the first two months of a given quarter and that all properly submitted redemption requests were satisfied, any unused capacity for those two months will carry over to the third month. In no event will such carry-over capacity permit the redemption of shares with aggregate value (based on the redemption price per share for the month the redemption is effected) in excess of 5% of the combined NAV of all classes of shares as of the last calendar day of the previous calendar quarter (provided that for these purposes redemptions may be measured on a net basis as described in the paragraph below).

We currently measure the foregoing redemption allocations and limitations based on net redemptions during a month or quarter, as applicable. The term “net redemptions” means, during the applicable period, the excess of our share redemptions (capital outflows) over the proceeds from the sale of our shares (capital inflows). Net redemptions for the class-specific allocations will be based only on the capital inflows and outflows of that class, while net redemptions for the overall program limits would be based on capital inflows and outflows of all classes. Thus, for any given calendar quarter, the maximum amount of redemptions during that quarter will be equal to (i) 5% of the combined NAV of all classes of shares as of the last calendar day of the previous calendar quarter, plus (ii) proceeds from sales of new shares in this offering (including purchases pursuant to our distribution reinvestment plan) and the Class E distribution reinvestment plan offering since the beginning of the current calendar quarter. The same would apply for a given month, except that redemptions in a month would be subject to the 2% limit described above (subject to potential carry-over capacity), and netting would be measured on a monthly basis. With respect to future periods, our board of directors may choose whether the allocations and limitations will be applied to “gross redemptions,” i.e., without netting against capital inflows, rather than to net redemptions. If redemptions for a given month or quarter are measured on a gross basis rather than on a net basis, the redemption limitations could limit the amount of shares redeemed in a given month or quarter despite our receiving a net capital inflow for that month or quarter. In order for our board of directors to change the application of the allocations and limitations from net redemptions to gross redemptions or vice versa, we will provide notice to stockholders in a prospectus supplement or special or periodic report filed by us, as well as in a press release or on our website, at least 10 days before the first business day of the quarter for which the new test will apply. The determination to measure redemptions on a gross basis, or vice versa, will only be made for an entire quarter, and not particular months within a quarter.

Although the vast majority of our assets consist of properties that cannot generally be readily liquidated on short notice without impacting our ability to realize full value upon their disposition, we intend to maintain a number of sources of liquidity including (i) cash equivalents (e.g. money market funds), other short-term investments, U.S. government securities, agency securities and liquid real estate-related securities and (ii) one or more borrowing facilities. We may fund redemptions from any available source of funds, including operating cash flows, borrowings, proceeds from this offering and/or sales of our assets.


Should redemption requests, in our judgment, place an undue burden on our liquidity, adversely affect our operations or risk having an adverse impact on the company as a whole, or should we otherwise determine that investing our liquid assets in real properties or other illiquid investments rather than redeeming our shares is in the best interests of the company as a whole, then we may choose to redeem fewer shares than have been requested to be redeemed, or none at all. Further, our board of directors may modify, suspend or terminate our share redemption program if it deems such action to be in our best interest and the best interest of our stockholders. If the transaction price for the applicable month is not made available by the tenth business day prior to the last business day of the month (or is changed after such date), then no redemption requests will be accepted for such month and stockholders who wish to have their shares redeemed the following month must resubmit their redemption requests. The above description of the share redemption program is a summary of certain of the terms of the share redemption program. Please see the full text of the share redemption program, which is incorporated by reference as Exhibit 4.1 to this Annual Report on Form 10-K, for all the terms and conditions.

Refer to Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for detail regarding our redemption and repurchase history.

The table below summarizes the redemption activity for the three months ended December 31, 2018:

For the Month Ended

Total Number of Shares Redeemed

Average Price Paid per Share

Total Number of Shares Redeemed as Part of

Publicly Announced

Plans or Programs

Maximum Number of

Shares That May Yet Be

Redeemed Pursuant

to the Program (1)

October 31, 2018

1,555

$

7.48

1,555

November 30, 2018

1,502

7.54

1,502

31 décembre 2018

1,378

7.54

1,378

Teljes

4,435

$

7.52

4,435

(1)

We limit the number of shares that may be redeemed under the share redemption program as described above.

Distributions

We intend to continue to make distributions on a monthly basis following the end of each calendar month. We intend to use monthly record dates and, thus, monthly distribution accruals. However, we reserve the right to adjust the periods during which distributions accrue and are paid. Although our distributions during the years ended December 31, 2018. 2017 et 2016 were fully funded from our operations, in the future we may fund distributions from other sources. Our long-term strategy is to fund the payment of monthly distributions to our stockholders entirely from our operations. However, if we are unsuccessful in investing the capital we raise in public offerings or which is generated from the sale of existing assets on an effective and efficient basis that is accretive to our distribution level, we may be required to fund our monthly distributions to our stockholders from a combination of our operations and financing activities, which include net proceeds of this offering and borrowings (including borrowings secured by our assets), or to reduce the level of our monthly distributions. We have not established a cap on the amount of our distributions that may be paid from any of these sources.

Our ability to pay distributions solely from cash flow from operations has been impacted by the expiration of certain large leases in our portfolio, which is evidenced under “Results of Operations” in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” wherein the impact of large lease expirations to our net operating income is discussed further. All distributions result in a decrease to our NAV while cash flow generated from our operations results in an increase to NAV. We generally seek to fund our distributions solely from our cash flow from operations and as a result, any cash flow from operations in excess of our distributions (all else equal) results in a net increase to NAV. Conversely, if our distributions exceed our cash flow from operations (all else equal), the net effect would result in a decrease to NAV.

Each quarter our board of directors determines the level of our distributions for each month in that quarter. In determining the appropriate level of a distribution, our board of directors considers a number of factors, including the current and anticipated market conditions, current and anticipated future performance and make-up of our investments, our overall financial projections and expected future cash needs. We can give no assurance that the board of directors will continue to set distributions at current levels and our distribution levels may change from time to time. Depending on the distribution level relative to cash flow generated from our portfolio, if our monthly distributions exceed cash flow generated from our operations, it may cause a decrease in our NAV if not offset by other effects.


In connection with a distribution to our stockholders, our board intends to authorize a monthly distribution of a certain dollar amount per share of our common stock before or on the first day of each calendar quarter for the months in such quarter. We will then calculate each stockholder’s specific distribution amount for the month using monthly record dates and stockholders distributions will accrue on the first record date after stockholders become a record owner of our common stock, subject to our board of directors declaring a distribution for record owners as of such date. We accrue the amount of declared distributions as a liability on the record date, and such liability is accounted for in determining the NAV.

The per share amount of any distributions for any class of common stock relative to the other classes of common stock shall be determined as described in the most recent multiple class plan approved by our board of directors. Under our multiple class plan in effect, distributions are made on all classes of our common stock at the same time. The per share amount of distributions on our shares of common stock differs because of different allocations of class-specific fees. We use the record share method of determining the per share amount of distributions on each class of shares, although our board of directors may choose other methods. The record share method is one of several distribution calculation methods for multiple-class funds recommended, but not required, by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Under this method, the amount to be distributed on shares of our common stock is increased by the sum of all class-specific fees accrued for such period. Such amount is divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding on the record date. Such per share amount is reduced for each class of common stock by the per share amount of any class-specific fees allocable to such class.

We are required to make distributions sufficient to satisfy the requirements for qualification as a REIT for federal income tax purposes. Generally, income distributed will not be taxable to us under the Code if we distribute at least 90% of our taxable income each year (computed without regard to the distributions paid deduction and our net capital gain). In addition, if we fail to distribute during each calendar year at least the sum of (a) 85% of our ordinary income for such year, (b) 95% of our capital gain net income for such year, and (c) any undistributed taxable income from prior periods, we will be subject to a 4% excise tax on the excess of the required distribution over the sum of (i) the amounts actually distributed by us, plus (ii) retained amounts on which we pay income tax at the corporate level. Distributions are authorized at the discretion of the board of directors, in accordance with our earnings, cash flow and general financial condition. The board’s discretion is directed, in substantial part, by its obligation to cause us to comply with the REIT requirements. Because we may receive income from interest or rents at various times during our fiscal year, distributions may not reflect our income earned in that particular distribution period and may be made in advance of actual receipt of funds in an attempt to make distributions relatively uniform. We are authorized to borrow money, issue new securities or sell assets in order to make distributions. There are no restrictions on the ability of the Operating Partnership to transfer funds to us.

Refer to Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for detail regarding our distribution history, as well as the sources used to pay our distributions.

Holders

The following tables summaries the number of shares outstanding and the number of stockholders, by class of common stock and OP Units, as of February 27, 2019:

(shares or units in thousands)

Class T
Shares

Class S

Shares

Class D

Shares

Class I

Shares

Class E

Shares

Class E

OP Units (1)

Shares or units outstanding

3,012

12,913

2,905

38,192

75,726

10,482

Number of holders of record

421

831

460

2,981

13,899

183

(1)

The number of holders of record for Class E OP Units represent the number of third-party investors.


ITEM 6.    SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.”

For the Year Ended December 31,

(in thousands, except per share data, building count and number of tenants)

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

Operating data:

Total revenues

$

190,325

$

197,346

$

216,170

$

225,200

$

231,597

Total operating expenses

$

(157,147

)

$

(158,238

)

$

(173,343

)

$

(181,275

)

$

(177,723

)

Total other (expenses) income

$

(34,516

)

$

40,290

$

12,221

$

87,734

$

(19,880

)

Net (loss) income

$

(1,338

)

$

79,398

$

55,048

$

131,659

$

33,994

Net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders

$

(1,237

)

$

72,216

$

49,976

$

124,255

$

29,192

Net (loss) income per common share—basic and diluted

$

(0.01

)

$

0.51

$

0.31

$

0.70

$

0.16

Weighted-average shares outstanding—basic

128,740

142,349

159,648

175,938

178,273

Weighted-average shares outstanding—diluted

139,674

154,156

172,046

188,789

190,991

Distributions:

Total distributions declared on common stock

$

47,765

$

50,858

$

57,040

$

62,900

$

62,236

Distributions declared per common stock

$

0.3750

$

0.3600

$

0.3600

$

0.3600

$

0.3500

NAREIT FFO (2):

Reconciliation of net (loss) income to NAREIT FFO:

Net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders

$

(1,237

)

$

72,216

$

49,976

$

124,255

$

29,192

Total NAREIT-defined adjustments (3)

$

53,859

$

(11,779

)

$

34,320

$

(42,085

)

$

56,054

NAREIT FFO attributable to OP Units

$

4,456

$

4,995

$

6,546

$

6,001

$

6,077

NAREIT FFO

$

57,078

$

65,432

$

90,842

$

88,171

$

91,323

Cash flow data:

Net cash provided by operating activities

$

67,516

$

64,222

$

90,296

$

105,530

$

87,229

Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities

$

(17,985

)

$

105,151

$

122,530

$

74,421

$

(15,102

)

Net cash used in financing activities

$

(51,509

)

$

(172,762

)

$

(214,731

)

$

(178,643

)

$

(82,444

)

As of December 31,

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

Balance sheet data:

Net investment in real estate properties

$

1,507,112

$

1,540,270

$

1,711,411

$

1,874,217

$

1,929,426

Cash and cash equivalents

$

10,008

$

10,475

$

13,864

$

15,769

$

14,461

Total assets

$

1,581,102

$

1,608,106

$

1,783,728

$

1,960,891

$

2,140,628

Debt, net

$

1,001,298

$

1,012,108

$

1,048,801

$

1,097,769

$

1,191,675

Total liabilities

$

1,170,089

$

1,115,380

$

1,175,637

$

1,234,940

$

1,376,648

Total stockholders' equity

$

333,718

$

405,869

$

516,343

$

628,805

$

684,317

Shares outstanding

130,852

132,466

150,636

164,124

178,400

Portfolio data:

Total number of properties

47

48

55

60

68

Total rentable square feet

7,677

7,560

8,971

10,133

11,871

Total number of tenants

490

471

520

550

475

(1)

Historically, we had been focused on selling certain office and retail assets in order to help us increase our current allocation to industrial real estate assets and liquidity to pursue new investment opportunities. As such, our year-over-year financial data is not directly comparable.

(2)

Refer to Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for the definition of NAREIT FFO, as well as a detailed reconciliation of our net (loss) income to NAREIT FFO.

(3)

Included in our NAREIT-defined adjustments are real estate-related depreciation and amortization, impairment of depreciable real estate, gains on sales of assets and noncontrolling interests’ share of net income (loss) and NAREIT FFO.


ITEM 7.    MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following discussion and analysis should be read together with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The following information contains forward-looking statements, which are subject to risks and uncertainties. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” above for a description of these risks and uncertainties.

OVERVIEW

Tábornok

Black Creek Diversified Property Fund Inc. is a NAV-based perpetual life REIT that was formed on April 11, 2005, as a Maryland corporation. We are primarily focused on investing in and operating a diverse portfolio of real property. As of December 31, 2018, our real estate portfolio consisted of 47 properties, which includes négy properties that are part of the DST Program, totaling approximately 7.7 million square feet located in 18 markets throughout the U.S., with 490 tenants.

We have operated and elected to be treated as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes, commencing with the taxable year ended December 31, 2006, and we intend to continue to operate in accordance with the requirements for qualification as a REIT. We utilize an UPREIT organizational structure to hold all or substantially all of our assets through the Operating Partnership.

As a NAV-based perpetual life REIT, we intend to conduct ongoing public primary offerings of our common stock on a perpetual basis. We also intend to conduct an ongoing distribution reinvestment plan offering for our stockholders to reinvest distributions in our shares. From time to time, we intend to file new registration statements on Form S-11 with the SEC to register additional shares of common stock so that we may continuously offer shares of common stock pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act. Alatt 2018, we raised $141.1 million of gross proceeds from the sale of common stock in our ongoing public primary offerings and $19.0 million from the sale of common stock under our distribution reinvestment plan. See “Note 7 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for more information about our public offerings.

Additionally, we have a program to raise capital through private placement offerings by selling beneficial interests in specific Delaware statutory trusts holding real properties. These private placement offerings are exempt from registration requirements pursuant to Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act. We anticipate that these interests may serve as replacement properties for investors seeking to complete like-kind exchange transactions under Section 1031 of the Code. Similar to our prior private placement offerings, we expect that the DST Program will give us the opportunity to expand and diversify our capital raise strategies by offering what we believe to be an attractive and unique investment product for investors that may be seeking replacement properties to complete like-kind exchange transactions under Section 1031 of the Code. Alatt 2018, we raised $43.2 million from the sale of interests related to the DST Program. See “Note 5 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional detail regarding the DST Program.

We currently operate in three reportable segments: office, retail and industrial. The following table summarizes our real estate portfolio by segment as of December 31, 2018:

($ and square feet in thousands)

Number of Markets (1)

Number of Properties

Rentable
Square Feet

% Leased

Aggregate
Fair Value

% of Aggregate Fair Value

Office properties

11

14

3,003

84.4

%

$

1,107,500

52.8

%

Retail properties

7

28

3,080

93.2

862,000

41.1

Industrial properties

5

5

1,594

97.3

128,400

6.1

Total real estate portfolio

18

47

7,677

90.6

%

$

2,097,900

100.0

%

(1)

Reflects the number of unique markets by segment and in total. As such, the total number of markets does not equal the sum of the number of markets by segment as certain segments are located in the same market.

We will continue to focus our investment activities on expanding a high-quality, diversified real estate portfolio throughout the U.S. Although we generally target investments in four primary property categories (office, retail, industrial and multifamily), our charter and bylaws do not preclude us from investing in other types of commercial property, real estate debt, or real estate-related equity securities. Our near-term, investment strategy is likely to prioritize new investments in the industrial and multifamily sectors due to attractive fundamental conditions. We have been focused on selling certain office and retail assets. The disposition of these properties has helped us to increase our current allocation to industrial real estate assets and


liquidity to pursue new investment opportunities. However, there can be no assurance that we will be successful in this investment strategy, including with respect to any particular asset class. To a lesser extent we may invest in other types of real estate including, but not limited to, hospitality, medical offices, student housing and unimproved land. We currently do not intend in investing in these other types of real estate.

Real Estate Outlook

Overall, the U.S. economic environment has continued to improve and remains fundamentally sound. Gross domestic product (“GDP”) in the U.S. has continued to grow, and the U.S. unemployment rate is expected to continue at a relatively low rate. We expect moderate economic growth in the U.S. to continue throughout 2019 as domestic wages continue to grow and consumer and business confidence remains high.

While the U.S. commercial real estate market saw a decline in transaction volume and a slowing of price increases, low vacancy rates and rising rents in many parts of the commercial property market resulted in continued net operating income growth.

The capital markets outlook for commercial real estate is less clear. While still strong, property operating fundamentals and value gains are moderate at this stage of the cycle. However, investment demand for commercial real estate remains high, bolstered by an abundance of domestic and foreign capital seeking increased allocations to the sector. Overall, while there seems to be more runway for commercial real estate to continue to perform well, there are uncertainties as to how real estate investors will price real estate investments should interest rates increase in a material way.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Summary of 2018 Activities

Alatt 2018, we completed the following activities:

Our NAV increased from $7.41 per share as of December 31, 2017 to $7.44 per share as of December 31, 2018.

We acquired two industrial properties comprising 0.5 million square feet for an aggregate purchase price of $55.8 million.

We sold two retail properties; one office property; one building from a two-building office property; and two outparcels for net proceeds of $77.7 million. We recorded a total net gain of $14.1 million.

We decreased our leverage ratio from 49.1% as of December 31, 2017 to 47.7% que December 31, 2018. Our leverage ratio for reporting purposes is calculated as the outstanding principal balance of our total property and corporate-level debt divided by the fair value of our real property and debt-related investments.

We leased 1.2 million square feet, which included 531,000 square feet of new and 648,000 square feet of renewals. This leasing activity contributed to the increase in our real estate portfolio’s leased percentage from 87.0% as of December 31, 2017 nak nek 90.6% que December 31, 2018.

We redeemed 22.9 million shares of common stock at a weighted-average purchase price of $7.47 per share for an aggregate amount of $170.9 million.


Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2017

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to the year ended December 31, 2017. We evaluate the performance of consolidated operating properties we own and manage using a same store analysis because the population of properties in this analysis is consistent from period to period, thereby eliminating the effects of any material changes in the composition of the aggregate portfolio on performance measures. We have defined the same store portfolio to include consolidated operating properties owned for the entirety of both the current and prior reporting periods for which the operations had been stabilized. Other operating properties not meeting the same store criteria are reflected in the non-same store portfolio. The same store operating portfolio for the periods presented below include 43 properties totaling approximately 6.8 million square feet owned as of January 1, 2017, which portfolio represented 88.7% of total rentable square feet as of December 31, 2018.

For the Year Ended December 31,

($ in thousands, except per square foot data)

2018

2017

$ Change

% Change

Rental revenues:

Same store properties

$

182,557

$

175,451

$

7,106

4.1

%

Non-same store properties

7,074

21,067

(13,993

)

(66.4

)

Total rental revenues

189,631

196,518

(6,887

)

(3.5

)

Rental expenses:

Same store properties

(58,844

)

(58,957

)

113

(0.2

)

Non-same store properties

(2,823

)

(7,575

)

4,752

(62.7

)

Total rental expenses

(61,667

)

(66,532

)

4,865

(7.3

)

Net operating income:

Same store properties

123,713

116,494

7,219

6.2

Non-same store properties

4,251

13,492

(9,241

)

(68.5

)

Total net operating income

127,964

129,986

(2,022

)

(1.6

)

Other income and (expenses):

Debt-related income

694

828

(134

)

(16.2

)

Real estate-related depreciation and amortization

(57,866

)

(68,070

)

10,204

(15.0

)

General and administrative expenses

(8,817

)

(9,235

)

418

(4.5

)

Advisory fees, related party

(14,149

)

(13,285

)

(864

)

6.5

Impairment of real estate property

(14,648

)

(1,116

)

(13,532

)

1,212.5

Interest expense

(48,358

)

(42,305

)

(6,053

)

14.3

Gain on sale of real estate property

14,093

83,057

(68,964

)

(83.0

)

Other expense

(251

)

(462

)

211

(45.7

)

Total other expenses

(129,302

)

(50,588

)

(78,714

)

155.6

Net (loss) income

(1,338

)

79,398

(80,736

)

(101.7

)

Net loss (income) attributable to noncontrolling interests

101

(7,182

)

7,283

(101.4

)

Net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders

$

(1,237

)

$

72,216

$

(73,453

)

(101.7

)%

Same store supplemental data:

Same store average percentage leased

90.0

%

91.8

%

Same store annual base rent per square foot

$

20.68

$

21.09

Rental Revenues. Rental revenues are comprised of base rent, straight-line rent, amortization of above- and below-market lease assets and liabilities, and tenant reimbursement revenue. Total rental revenues csökkent par $6.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017, primarily due to a $14.0 million decrease in non-same store rental revenues driven by 10 dispositions during 2017 and six dispositions during 2018, which were partially offset by two acquisitions during 2017 and two acquisitions during 2018 (“Net Disposition Activity”). The decrease in non-same store rental revenues was partially offset by an increase of $7.1 million in same store rental revenues for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017. The increase in same store rental revenues was primarily a result of additional rental revenues recorded during the year ended December 31, 2018 associated with two lease terminations (the “Lease Terminations”). The Lease Terminations were comprised of: (i) $14.0 million of consideration received in June 2018 at our


Campus Road Office Center property, which is amortized in to rental revenues on a straight-line basis through April 2019; and (ii) $1.0 million of consideration received in August 2018 at our Bala Pointe office property, which was amortized in to rental revenues on a straight-line basis through December 2018. Additionally, the growth in same store rental revenues was driven by an increase in rental revenue as a result of an increase in average percentage leased at our 655 Montgomery and Park Place office properties. This was partially offset by the expiration of the Charles Schwab & Co., Inc. (“Schwab”) lease in September 2017. Schwab was our largest tenant at September 30, 2017 and subleased 100% of our 594,000 square foot 3 Second Street office property to 25 sub-tenants through Schwab’s expiration. As of the date of the Schwab lease expiration, we executed leases directly with 15 of the 25 sub-tenants comprising 389,000 square feet.

The following table presents the components of our consolidated rental revenues:

For the Year Ended December 31,

(in thousands)

2018

2017

$ Change

% Change

Base rent

$

131,404

$

147,603

$

(16,199

)

(11.0

)%

Straight-line rent

14,508

1,855

12,653

682.1

Amortization of above- and below-market intangibles

3,712

3,003

709

23.6

Tenant recovery income

35,331

39,237

(3,906

)

(10.0

)

Más

4,676

4,820

(144

)

(3.0

)

Total rental revenues

$

189,631

$

196,518

$

(6,887

)

(3.5

)%

Rental Expenses. Rental expenses include certain property operating expenses typically reimbursed by our tenants, such as real estate taxes, property insurance, property management fees, repair and maintenance, and include certain non-recoverable expenses, such as consulting services and roof repairs. Total rental expenses csökkent par $4.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017, primarily due to the Net Disposition Activity (described above) attributable to our non-same store properties.

The following table presents the various components of our rental expenses:

For the Year Ended December 31,

$ Change

% Change

(in thousands)

2018

2017

Real estate taxes

$

23,398

$

26,834

$

(3,436

)

(12.8

)%

Repairs and maintenance

19,908

20,172

(264

)

(1.3

)

Utilities

7,081

7,603

(522

)

(6.9

)

Property management fees

4,311

4,774

(463

)

(9.7

)

Insurance

1,405

1,482

(77

)

(5.2

)

Más

5,564

5,667

(103

)

(1.8

)

Total rental expenses

$

61,667

$

66,532

$

(4,865

)

(7.3

)%

Other Expenses. Other expenses increased by $78.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017, primarily due to:

a decrease of $69.0 million in gain on sale of real estate property as a result of lower disposition activity in 2018;

an increase of $13.5 million in impairment of real estate property related to three properties during 2018 as compared to one property during 2017; et

an increase in interest expense of $6.1 million that was primarily attributable to higher LIBOR rates as evidenced by a higher aggregate weighted-average interest rate of 3.98% as of December 31, 2018, as compared to 3.64% as of December 31, 2017.

All of which were partially offset by:

a decrease of $10.2 million in real estate-related depreciation and amortization primarily due to our disposition activity during 2017 and 2018.


Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2016

The following table summarizes our results of operations for the years ended December 31, 2017 et 2016. The same store operating portfolio for the periods presented below include 45 properties totaling approximately 7.1 million square feet owned as of January 1, 2016, which portfolio represented 94.4% of total rentable square feet as of December 31, 2017.

For the Year Ended December 31,

($ in thousands, except per square foot data)

2017

2016

$ Change

% Change

Rental revenues:

Same store properties

$

173,427

$

187,773

$

(14,346

)

(7.6

)%

Non-same store properties

23,091

27,454

(4,363

)

(15.9

)

Total rental revenues

196,518

215,227

(18,709

)

(8.7

)

Rental expenses:

Same store properties

(59,438

)

(56,567

)

(2,871

)

5.1

Non-same store properties

(7,094

)

(9,020

)

1,926

(21.4

)

Total rental expenses

(66,532

)

(65,587

)

(945

)

1.4

Net operating income:

Same store properties

113,989

131,206

(17,217

)

(13.1

)

Non-same store properties

15,997

18,434

(2,437

)

(13.2

)

Total net operating income

129,986

149,640

(19,654

)

(13.1

)

Other income and (expenses):

Debt-related income

828

943

(115

)

(12.2

)

Real estate-related depreciation and amortization

(68,070

)

(80,105

)

12,035

(15.0

)

General and administrative expenses

(9,235

)

(9,450

)

215

(2.3

)

Advisory fees, related party

(13,285

)

(14,857

)

1,572

(10.6

)

Acquisition expenses

(667

)

667

(100.0

)

Impairment of real estate property

(1,116

)

(2,677

)

1,561

(58.3

)

Interest expense

(42,305

)

(40,782

)

(1,523

)

3.7

Gain on sale of real estate property

83,057

45,660

37,397

81.9

Other (expense) income

(462

)

2,207

(2,669

)

(120.9

)

Gain on extinguishment of debt

5,136

(5,136

)

(100.0

)

Total other expenses

(50,588

)

(94,592

)

44,004

(46.5

)

Net income

79,398

55,048

24,350

44.2

Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests

(7,182

)

(5,072

)

(2,110

)

41.6

Net income attributable to common stockholders

$

72,216

$

49,976

$

22,240

44.5

%

Same store supplemental data:

Same store average percentage leased

89.5

%

95.7

%

Same store annual base rent per square foot

$

20.44

$

22.05

Rental Revenues. Total rental revenues csökkent par $18.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to the same period in 2016, primarily due to a decrease in our same store rental revenues as a result of: (i) a 6.2% decrease in average percentage leased, (ii) a $1.61 decrease in average annualized base rent per square foot and (iii) our Sybase Inc. (“Sybase”) and Schwab lease expirations in January 2017 and September 2017, respectively. Average percentage leased for our same store portfolio decreased from 95.7% for the year ended December 31, 2016 nak nek 89.5% for the year ended December 31, 2017. This decrease was primarily driven by the Sybase and Schwab lease expirations, which comprised approximately $12.4 million and $1.1 million, respectively, of our same store rental revenue decrease. Excluding the impact of the Sybase and Schwab lease expirations, same store rental revenues decreased approximately $0.8 million, or 0.5%, for the periods under comparison. The remaining total rental revenue decrease is attributable to our non-same store portfolio, as we had significant net disposition activity during 2017, partially offset by an acquisition during 2016.


The following table presents the components of our consolidated rental revenues:

For the Year Ended December 31,

(in thousands)

2017

2016

$ Change

% Change

Base rent

$

147,603

$

170,903

$

(23,300

)

(13.6

)%

Straight-line rent

1,855

(1,263

)

3,118

(246.9

)

Amortization of above- and below-market intangibles

3,003

535

2,468

461.3

Tenant recovery income

39,237

41,707

(2,470

)

(5.9

)

Más

4,820

3,345

1,475

44.1

Total rental revenues

$

196,518

$

215,227

$

(18,709

)

(8.7

)%

Rental Expenses. Total rental expenses increased by $0.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to the same period in 2016, primarily due to an increase in rental expenses in our same store portfolio. The Sybase lease expiration in January 2017 led to a $2.6 million increase in rental expenses, as certain rental expenses associated with the Sybase lease are no longer managed and paid directly by the tenant. Excluding the impact of the Sybase lease expiration, same store rental expenses decreased approximately $0.1 million, or 0.1%, to approximately $46.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 from approximately $46.9 million for the same period in 2016. The increase in same store rental expenses was partially offset by a $1.9 million decrease in our non-same store rental expenses that was primarily attributable to our real property dispositions during 2017.

The following table presents the various components of our rental expenses:

For the Year Ended December 31,

$ Change

% Change

(in thousands)

2017

2016

Real estate taxes

$

26,834

$

25,404

$

1,430

5.6

%

Repairs and maintenance

20,172

19,145

1,027

5.4

Utilities

7,603

8,261

(658

)

(8.0

)

Property management fees

4,774

4,935

(161

)

(3.3

)

Insurance

1,482

1,470

12

0.8

Más

5,667

6,372

(705

)

(11.1

)

Total rental expenses

$

66,532

$

65,587

$

945

1.4

%

Other Expenses. Other expenses decreased by $44.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to the same period in 2016, primarily due to:

an increase of $37.4 million in gain on sale of real estate property as a result of more dispositions in 2017; et

a decrease of $12.0 million in real estate-related depreciation and amortization primarily due to our dispositions during 2017.

All of which was partially offset by:

a gain on extinguishment of debt of $5.1 million in 2016 related to a contingently payable mortgage note that was not ultimately required to be repaid upon the disposition of the related property.


Segment Summary for the Years Ended December 31, 2018. 2017 et 2016

Our segments are based on our internal reporting of operating results used to assess performance based on the type of our properties. Our markets are aggregated into three reportable segments: office, retail and industrial. These segments are comprised of the markets by which management and its operating teams conduct and monitor business. See “Note 12 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further information on our segments. Management considers rental revenues and net operating income (“NOI”) aggregated by segment to be the appropriate way to analyze performance. See “Additional Measures of Performance” below for detail regarding the use of NOI. The following table summarizes certain operating trends in our consolidated properties by segment:

For the Year Ended

December 31,

$ Change

% Change

For the Year Ended

December 31,

$ Change

% Change

(in thousands)

2018

2017

2017

2016

Rental revenues:

Office

$

108,174

$

102,888

$

5,286

5.1

%

$

104,519

$

119,482

$

(14,963

)

(12.5

)%

Retail

71,983

70,163

1,820

2.6

66,508

65,891

617

0.9

Industrial

2,400

2,400

2,400

2,400

Total same store rental revenues

182,557

175,451

7,106

4.1

173,427

187,773

(14,346

)

(7.6

)

Non-same store properties

7,074

21,067

(13,993

)

(66.4

)

23,091

27,454

(4,363

)

(15.9

)

Total rental revenues

$

189,631

$

196,518

$

(6,887

)

(3.5

)%

$

196,518

$

215,227

$

(18,709

)

(8.7

)%

NOI:

Office

$

66,332

$

60,930

$

5,402

8.9

%

$

61,024

$

79,135

$

(18,111

)

(22.9

)%

Retail

55,033

53,201

1,832

3.4

50,602

49,703

899

1.8

Industrial

2,348

2,363

(15

)

(0.6

)

2,363

2,368

(5

)

(0.2

)

Total same store NOI

123,713

116,494

7,219

6.2

113,989

131,206

(17,217

)

(13.1

)

Non-same store properties

4,251

13,492

(9,241

)

(68.5

)

15,997

18,434

(2,437

)

(13.2

)

Total NOI

$

127,964

$

129,986

$

(2,022

)

(1.6

)%

$

129,986

$

149,640

$

(19,654

)

(13.1

)%

Same store average percentage leased:

Office

82.9

%

85.7

%

82.1

%

95.7

%

Retail

94.5

95.8

94.9

94.6

Industrial

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Same store average annualized base rent per square foot:

Office

$

28.53

$

29.72

$

28.97

$

31.40

Retail

18.30

17.97

16.93

16.81

Industrial

3.29

3.21

3.21

3.13

Office Segment. Our office segment same store NOI increased by approximately $5.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017, primarily as a result of additional rental revenues recorded during the year ended December 31, 2018 associated with the Lease Terminations described above and an increase in rental revenues as a result of an increase in average percentage leased at our 655 Montgomery and Park Place office properties, which was partially offset by the Schwab lease expiration and a decrease in average percentage leased at our Venture Corporate Center office property.

Our office segment same store NOI decreased $18.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to the same period in 2016, primarily due to a decrease in average percentage leased for our same store office portfolio, which was driven by the Sybase and Schwab lease expirations described above.

Retail Segment. Our retail segment same store NOI increased by approximately $1.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to the same period in 2017, primarily as a result of: (i) three early termination fees received during 2018; (ii) a decrease in bad debt expenses related to the current-year receipt of tenant payments; and (iii) an increase in leasing activity at two of our retail properties. These were all partially offset by a lease expiration of a single tenant at a property located in the Holbrook, Massachusetts market.


Our retail segment same store NOI increased $0.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, as compared to the same period in 2016, primarily due to: (i) an increase in average percentage leased and a decrease in bad debt expense both at our Kingston property; (ii) an increase in average percentage leased, as well as higher rent at our 270 Center property; and (iii) an increase in occupancy at our Wareham property. These were all partially offset by a decrease in average percentage leased at our Holbrook property.

Industrial Segment. Our industrial segment same store NOI did not change between the periods under comparison.

ADDITIONAL MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE

Net Income and NOI

We define NOI as GAAP rental revenues less GAAP rental expenses. We consider NOI to be an appropriate supplemental performance measure and believe NOI provides useful information to our investors regarding our financial condition and results of operations because NOI reflects the operating performance of our properties and excludes certain items that are not considered to be controllable in connection with the management of the properties, such as real estate-related depreciation and amortization, general and administrative expenses, advisory fees, acquisition expenses, impairment charges, interest expense, gains on sale of properties, other income and expense, gains and losses on the extinguishment of debt and noncontrolling interests. However, NOI should not be viewed as an alternative measure of our financial performance since it excludes such items, which could materially impact our results of operations. Further, our NOI may not be comparable to that of other real estate companies, as they may use different methodologies for calculating NOI. Therefore, we believe net income, as defined by GAAP, to be the most appropriate measure to evaluate our overall financial performance. Refer to “Results of Operations” above for a reconciliation of our GAAP net income (loss) to NOI for the years ended December 31, 2018. 2017 et 2016.

Funds From Operations (“FFO”)

We believe that FFO, in addition to net income (loss) and cash flows from operating activities as defined by GAAP, are useful supplemental performance measures that our management uses to evaluate our consolidated operating performance. However, this supplemental, non-GAAP measure should not be considered as an alternative to net income (loss) or to cash flows from operating activities as an indication of our performance and is not intended to be used as a liquidity measure indicative of cash flow available to fund our cash needs, including our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. No single measure can provide users of financial information with sufficient information and only our disclosures read as a whole can be relied upon to adequately portray our financial position, liquidity, and results of operations. In addition, other REITs may define FFO and similar measures differently and choose to treat acquisition-related costs and potentially other accounting line items in a manner different from us due to specific differences in investment and operating strategy or for other reasons.

FFO. As defined by the National Association of Real Estate Investment Trusts (“NAREIT”), FFO is a non-GAAP measure that excludes certain items such as real estate-related depreciation and amortization. We believe FFO is a meaningful supplemental measure of our operating performance that is useful to investors because depreciation and amortization in accordance with GAAP implicitly assumes that the value of real estate assets diminishes predictably over time. By excluding gains or losses on the sale of assets, we believe FFO provides a helpful additional measure of our consolidated operating performance on a comparative basis. We use FFO as an indication of our consolidated operating performance and as a guide to making decisions about future investments.


The following unaudited table presents a reconciliation of GAAP net (loss) income to NAREIT FFO:

For the Year Ended December 31,

(in thousands, except per share data)

2018

2017

2016

GAAP net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders

$

(1,237

)

$

72,216

$

49,976

GAAP net (loss) income per common share—basic and diluted

$

(0.01

)

$

0.51

$

0.31

Reconciliation of GAAP net (loss) income to NAREIT FFO:

GAAP net (loss) income attributable to common stockholders

$

(1,237

)

$

72,216

$

49,976

Real estate-related depreciation and amortization

57,866

68,070

80,105

Impairment of real estate property

14,648

1,116

2,677

Gain on sale of real estate property

(14,093

)

(83,057

)

(45,660

)

Noncontrolling interests’ share of net (loss) income

(101

)

7,182

5,072

Noncontrolling interests’ share of NAREIT FFO

(4,461

)

(5,090

)

(7,874

)

NAREIT FFO attributable to common stockholders—basic

52,622

60,437

84,296

NAREIT FFO attributable to OP Units

4,456

4,995

6,546

NAREIT FFO

$

57,078

$

65,432

$

90,842

Weighted-average shares outstanding—basic

128,740

142,349

159,648

Weighted-average shares outstanding—diluted

139,674

154,156

172,046

NAREIT FFO per common share—basic and diluted

$

0.41

$

0.42

$

0.53

The decrease in NAREIT FFO per common share for the year ended December 31, 2017 as compared to the same period in 2016 was primarily due to the expiration of the Sybase and Schwab leases in January 2017 and September 2017, respectively. See “Results of Operations” above for further detail.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Liquidity

Our primary sources of capital for meeting our cash requirements include debt financings, cash generated from operating activities, net proceeds from our public offerings, and asset sales. Our principal uses of funds are distributions to our stockholders, payments under our debt obligations, redemption payments, acquisition of properties and other investments, and capital expenditures. Over time, we intend to fund a majority of our cash needs, including the repayment of debt and capital expenditures, from operating cash flows and refinancings. As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $409.3 million of borrowings maturing in the next 12 months. Of this amount, $131.0 million that was outstanding under our line of credit was extended to January 2023 and $275.0 million that was outstanding under our term loan was extended to January 2024. Refer to “Subsequent Events” below for further detail regarding our amended and restated credit facility agreements. We expect to be able to repay our principal obligations over the next 12 months from operating cash flows and through refinancings.

The Advisor, subject to the oversight of our board of directors and, under certain circumstances, the investment committee or other committees established by our board of directors, will evaluate potential acquisitions or dispositions and will engage in negotiations with buyers, sellers and lenders on our behalf. Pending investment in property, debt, or other investments, we may decide to temporarily invest any unused proceeds from our public offerings in certain investments that are expected to yield lower returns than those earned on real estate assets. These lower returns may affect our ability to make distributions to our stockholders. Potential future sources of capital include proceeds from secured or unsecured financings from banks or other lenders, proceeds from our public offerings, proceeds from the sale of assets, and undistributed funds from operations.

We believe that our cash on-hand, anticipated net offering proceeds, proceeds from our line of credit, and other financing and disposition activities should be sufficient to meet our anticipated future acquisition, operating, debt service, distribution and redemption requirements.


Cash Flows. The following table summarizes our cash flows for the following periods:

For the Year Ended December 31,

(in thousands)

2018

2017

2016

Total cash provided by (used in):

Operating activities

$

67,516

$

58,920

$

87,371

Investing activities

(17,985

)

106,455

113,202

Financing activities

(51,509

)

(167,505

)

(213,590

)

Net decrease in cash

$

(1,978

)

$

(2,130

)

$

(13,017

)

2018 Cash Flows Compared to 2017 Cash Flows

Net cash provided by operating activities increased by approximately $8.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to the same period in 2017, primarily due to payments received during the year ended December 31, 2018 related to the Lease Terminations described above, partially offset by the Net Disposition Activity and the Schwab lease expiration, both as described above.

Net cash provided by investing activities of $106.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017 decreased by approximately $124.5 million to $18.0 million of net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease was primarily attributable to: (i) a decrease in proceeds received from our real estate property dispositions due to lower disposition activity during 2018; (ii) an increase in the amount paid for real estate property acquisitions due to higher acquisition activity during 2018; (iii) an increase in capital expenditures; and (iv) a decrease in principal collections on debt-related investments as a result of a principal repayment received during the year ended December 31, 2017.

Net cash used in financing activities decreased by approximately $116.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to the same period in 2017. The decrease was primarily due to: (i) an increase in proceeds from the issuance of common stock; (ii) an increase in capital raised related to the DST Program, which are presented as financing obligations; and (iii) a decrease in cash paid for redemptions of common stock. These were all partially offset by a decrease in net borrowing activity under our mortgage notes and line of credit.

2017 Cash Flows Compared to 2016 Cash Flows

Net cash provided by operating activities decreased by approximately $28.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to the same period in 2016. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease in net operating income, components of which are discussed previously within “Rental Revenues” and “Rental Expenses” under “Results for the Year Ended December 31, 2017 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2016.”

Net cash provided by investing activities decreased by approximately $6.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to the same period in 2016. The decrease was primarily attributable to a decrease in cash received from real property dispositions, which were partially offset by a decrease in cash paid for real property acquisitions.

Net cash used in financing activities decreased by approximately $46.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to the same period in 2016. The decrease was primarily due to (i) an increase in mortgage note proceeds, (ii) a decrease in mortgage note repayments and (iii) a decrease in cash paid to redeem common stock, which were partially offset by (i) net repayments on our line of credit, (ii) net proceeds from our term loans during 2016, which had no activity during 2017, and (iii) a decrease in proceeds from the issuance of common stock.

Capital Resources and Uses of Liquidity

In addition to our cash and cash equivalents balances available, our capital resources and uses of liquidity are as follows:

Line of Credit and Term Loans. As of December 31, 2018, we had an aggregate of $875.0 million of commitments under our credit agreements, including $400.0 million under our line of credit and $475.0 million under our two term loans. As of that date, we had: (i) approximately $131.0 million outstanding under our line of credit with a weighted-average effective interest rate of 4.05%; and (ii) $475.0 million outstanding under our term loans with a weighted-average effective interest rate of 3.63%, which includes the effect of the interest rate swap agreements related to $350.0 million in borrowings under our term loans. The unused and available portions under our line of credit were $269.0 million et $207.2 million, respectively. In January 2019, we increased the aggregate commitments under our amended and restated credit agreements by $100.0 million to $975.0 million, extended the initial maturity date of our line of credit from January 2020 to January 2023 with two six-month extension options, subject to certain conditions, and extended the maturity date of one of our term loans from January 2019 to


January 2024. Our other term loan was also amended and restated in January 2019 resulting in the addition of two one-year extension options, subject to certain conditions, and the initial maturity date of February 2022 maturity date remained unchanged. Our line of credit and term loan borrowings are available for general corporate purposes, including but not limited to the refinancing of other debt, payment of redemptions, acquisition and operation of permitted investments. Refer to “Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional information regarding our line of credit and term loans. Additionally, refer to “Subsequent Events” below for further detail relating to our amended and restated credit agreements.

Mortgage Notes. As of December 31, 2018, we had property-level borrowings of approximately $399.5 million outstanding with a weighted-average remaining term of approximately 3.2 years. These borrowings are secured by mortgages or deeds of trust and related assignments and security interests in the collateralized properties, and had a weighted-average interest rate of 4.36%, which includes the effects of interest rate swap agreements related to two variable-rate mortgage notes aggregating $84.5 million. The proceeds from our mortgage notes were used to partially finance certain of our acquisitions. Refer to “Note 4 to the Consolidated Financial Statements” in Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for additional information regarding the mortgage notes.

Debt Covenants. Our line of credit, term loan and mortgage note agreements contain various property level covenants, including customary affirmative and negative covenants. In addition, our line of credit and term loan agreements contain certain corporate level financial covenants, including leverage ratio, fixed charge coverage ratio, and tangible net worth thresholds. These covenants may limit our ability to incur additional debt or to pay distributions. We were in compliance with our debt covenants as of December 31, 2018.

Offering Proceeds. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the amount of aggregate gross proceeds raised from our public offerings (including shares issued pursuant to the distribution reinvestment plan) was $160.1 million ($146.6 million net of direct selling costs).

Distributions. To obtain the favorable tax treatment accorded to REITs, we normally will be required each year to distribute to our stockholders at least 90% of our real estate investment trust taxable income, determined without regard to the deduction for distributions paid and by excluding net capital gains. The payment of distributions is determined by our board of directors and may be adjusted at its discretion at any time. Distribution levels are set by our board of directors at a level it believes to be appropriate and sustainable based upon a review of a variety of factors including the current and anticipated market conditions, current and anticipated future performance and make-up of our investments, our overall financial projections and expected future cash needs. We intend to continue to make distributions on a monthly basis.

The following table outlines sources used, as determined on a GAAP basis, to pay total gross distributions (which are paid in cash or reinvested in shares of our common stock through our distribution reinvestment plan) for the periods indicated below:

Amount

Source of Distributions

Total Cash Flows from Operating Activities

(in thousands, except per share data)

Declared per Common Share (1)

Paid in Cash (2)

Reinvested in Shares

Total Distributions

Cash Flows from Operating Activities (3)

Borrowings

2018

March 31

$

0.09375

$

8,367

63.6

%

$

4,789

36.4

%

$

13,156

$

9,282

70.6

%

$

3,874

29.4

%

$

9,282

30 juin

0.09375

8,358

64.0

4,710

36.0

13,068

13,068

100.0

28,734

September 30

0.09375

8,331

63.7

4,738

36.3

13,069

13,069

100.0

14,563

December 31

0.09375

8,382

63.5

4,814

36.5

13,196

13,196

100.0

14,937

Teljes

$

0.37500

$

33,438

63.7

%

$

19,051

36.3

%

$

52,489

$

48,615

92.6

%

$

3,874

7.4

%

$

67,516

2017

March 31

$

0.0900

$

9,539

65.3

%

$

5,076

34.7

%

$

14,615

$

14,615

100.0

%

$

%

$

17,422

30 juin

0.0900

9,327

65.5

4,920

34.5

14,247

12,787

89.8

1,460

10.2

12,787

September 30

0.0900

8,744

63.9

4,937

36.1

13,681

13,681

100.0

18,545

December 31

0.0900

8,373

63.7

4,775

36.3

13,148

10,166

77.3

2,982

22.7

10,166

Teljes

$

0.36000

$

35,983

64.6

%

$

19,708

35.4

%

$

55,691

$

51,249

92.0

%

$

4,442

8.0

%

$

58,920

(1)

Amount reflects the total quarterly distribution rate, subject to adjustment for class-specific fees. Beginning in the third quarter of 2017, distributions were declared and paid as of monthly record dates. These monthly distributions have been aggregated and presented on a quarterly basis.